Child Malnutrition In Nigeria

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Child malnutrition in Nigeria Evidence from Kwara State

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Author by : Kuku-Shittu, Oluyemisi
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 64
Isbn :
Identifier :
Release : 2016-08-10
Publisher by : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Category : Political Science
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Description : Read Now Child Malnutrition In Nigeria by Kuku-Shittu, Oluyemisi and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. poverty and a lack of awareness seem to be at the heart of the problem of childhood malnutrition in nigeria. until the socioeconomic status of the vast majority of nigerians improves significantly, malnutrition will continue to pose a serious threat to the growth and development of nigerian children and the future of national development. significant variations exist in the level of child and maternal malnutrition across rural/urban settings, geopolitical zones, and agro-ecological bands in nigeria. malnutrition rates are higher among rural households who depend more on agriculture than on other sectors for their livelihoods. a range of socioeconomic, demographic, and public health related factors work together to influence maternal and child nutrition outcomes among rural and urban dwellers across the geopolitical zones and agro-ecological zones in nigeria.

The Energy Trap: Work, Nutrition and Child Malnutrition in Northern Nigeria

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Author by : LONGHURST RICHARD.
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 101
Isbn :
Identifier : OCLC:491262296
Release : 1984
Publisher by : no defined
Category :
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Malnutrition Quantifying the Health Impact at National and Local Levels

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Author by : Monika Blössner
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 43
Isbn : 9789241591874
Identifier : 9241591870
Release : 2005
Publisher by : no defined
Category : Malnutrition
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Management of Severe Malnutrition A Manual for Physicians and Other Senior Health Workers

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Author by : World Health Organization
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 60
Isbn : 9789241545112
Identifier : 9241545119
Release : 1999-01-01
Publisher by : no defined
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now Management Of Severe Malnutrition by World Health Organization and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this manual provides expert practical guidelines for the management of severely malnourished children. addressed to doctors and other senior health workers, the manual explains exactly what must be done to save lives, achieve successful management and rehabilitation, prevent relapse, and thus give these children the greatest chance of full recovery. throughout, the importance of treating severe malnutrition as both a medical and a social disorder is repeatedly emphasized. as successful management does not require sophisticated facilities and equipment or highly qualified personnel, the manual also performs a persuasive function, encouraging health professionals to do all they can to save these children and meet their great need for care and affection. recommended procedures draw on extensive practical experience as well as several recent therapeutic advances. these include improved solutions of oral rehydration salts for the treatment of dehydration, better understanding of the role of micronutrients in dietary management, and growing evidence that physical and psychological stimulation can help prevent long-term consequences of impaired growth and psychological development. noting that the physiology of malnourished children is seriously abnormal, the manual gives particular attention to aspects of management - whether involving the interpretation of symptoms or the use of specific interventions - that differ considerably from standard procedures for well-nourished children. details range from the reasons why iv infusion easily causes overhydration and heart failure, through a list of treatments that have no value and should never be used, to the simple reminder that underarm temperature is not a reliable guide to body temperature in a malnourished child during rewarming. further practical guidance is provided in eight appendices, which use numerous tables, charts, sample recording forms, instructions for preparing feeds, and examples of easily constructed toys to help ensure that management is thorough, safe, and in line with the latest knowledge.

Combating Malnutrition Time to Act

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Author by : Stuart R. Gillespie
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 165
Isbn : 9780821354452
Identifier : 0821354450
Release : 2003
Publisher by : World Bank Publications
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now Combating Malnutrition by Stuart R. Gillespie and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. malnutrition is a factor in half of all child deaths, as well as hindering childhood development and increasing the risk of chronic diseases in later life. it is clear that the millennium development goals cannot be reached without significant global efforts to eliminate malnutrition. this report has been jointly produced by unicef and the world bank and examines lessons learned from the development policy agenda to reduce malnutrition levels and promote nutrition programmes. it includes country case studies from india, madagascar, the philippines and tanzania.

Nutrition and economic development Exploring Egypt's exceptionalism and the role of food subsidies

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Author by : Ecker, Olivier
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 282
Isbn : 089629238X
Identifier : 9780896292383
Release : 2016-11-15
Publisher by : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Category : Political Science
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Description : Read Now Nutrition And Economic Development by Ecker, Olivier and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this book’s main hypothesis is that egypt’s large food subsidy system has been ineffective in reducing undernutrition; in fact, it may have contributed to sustaining and even aggravating both nutrition challenges. for a long time, the subsidy system provided only calorie-rich foods, at very low and constant prices and with quotas much above dietary recommendations. this system has created incentives to consume calorie-overladen and unbalanced diets, increasing the risks of child and maternal overnutrition and, at high subsidy levels, the risk of inadequate child nutrition. moreover, the large public budget allocated to the food subsidies is unavailable for possibly more nutrition-beneficial spending, such as for child and maternal nutrition-specific interventions. the authors’ findings consistently suggest that—in addition to the well-known economic rationale for reforming the egyptian food subsidy system—there are strong reasons to reform food subsidies due to nutrition and public health concerns. a fundamental food subsidy reform process has been under way since june 2014. the already-implemented changes can be expected to have reduced some incentives for overconsumption and may have positive dietary effects. however, further major reform efforts are needed to transform the current subsidy system into a key policy instrument in the fight against malnutrition. the findings of this book should be valuable to policy makers, analysts, development partners, and others concerned with improving food security and promoting healthy nutrition in egypt and other developing countries with large social protection programs.

Effects of Health Programs on Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa

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Author by : National Research Council
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 208
Isbn : 0309049415
Identifier : 9780309049412
Release : 1993-02-01
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now Effects Of Health Programs On Child Mortality In Sub Saharan Africa by National Research Council and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this book examines the effects of health interventions on infant and child mortality. discussions of levels and trends of infant and child mortality and causes of death provide the background for an analysis of treatment and prevention strategies.

What Can We Learn from Nutrition Impact Evaluations? Lessons from a Review of Interventions to Reduce Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries

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Author by : The World Bank
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 168
Isbn : 9780821384077
Identifier : 0821384074
Release : 2010-08-27
Publisher by : World Bank Publications
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now What Can We Learn From Nutrition Impact Evaluations? by The World Bank and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. evaluation summary what can we learn from nutrition impact evaluations? high levels of child malnutrition in developing countries contribute to mortality and have long-term consequences for children s cognitive development and earnings as adults. recent impact evaluations show that many different interventions have had an impact on children s anthropometric outcomes (height, weight, and birth weight), but there is no simple answer to the question what works? to address the problem. similar interventions have widely different results in different settings, owing to differences in local context, the causes and severity of malnutrition, and the capacity for program implementation. impact evaluations of programs supported by the bank, which are generally large-scale, complex inter-ventions in low-capacity settings, show equally variable results. the findings confirm that it should not be assumed that an intervention found effective in a randomized medical setting will have the same effects when implemented under field conditions. there are many robust experimental and quasi-experimental methods for assessing impact under difficult circumstances often found in field settings. the relevance and impact of nutrition impact evaluations could be enhanced by collecting data on service delivery, demand-side behavioral outcomes, and implementation processes to better understand the causal chain and what part of the chain is weak, in parallel with impact evaluations. it is also important to understand better the distribution of impacts, particularly among the poor, and to document better the costs and effectiveness of interventions. high levels of child malnutrition in developing countries are contributing to mortality and present long-term consequences for the survivors. an estimated 178 million children under age 5 in developing countries are stunted (low height for age) and 55 million are wasted (low weight for height). malnutrition makes children more susceptible to illness and strongly affects child mortality. beyond the mortality risk in the short run, the developmental delays caused by undernutrition affect children s cognitive outcomes and productive potential as adults. micronutrient deficiencies vitamin a, iron, zinc, iodine, for example are also common and have significant consequences. progress in reducing malnutrition has been slow: more than half of countries are not on track to achieve the millennium development goal of halving the share of children who are malnou-rished (low weight for age) by 2015. the food price and financial crises are making achievement of this goal even more elusive. the world bank has recently taken steps to ex-pand its support for nutrition in response to the underlying need and the increased urgency due to the crises. what do we know about reducing malnutrition? the increased interest and resources focused on the problem of high and potentially increasing rates of undernutrition raises the question, what do we know about the causes of malnutrition and the in-terventions most likely to reduce it? the medical literature points to the need to inter-vene during gestation and the first two years of life to prevent child malnutrition and its consequences. it suggests that investments in interventions during this window of opportunity among children under 2 are likely to have the greatest benefits. recently published meta-analyses of the impact evaluation literature point to several interventions found effective for reducing undernutrition in spe-cific settings. however, there are limitations to the generalizability of those reviews findings, particularly in the context of large-scale government programs most likely to be supported by the world bank. the reviews tend to disproportionately draw on the findings of smaller, controlled experiments; there are few examples of evaluations of large-scale programs, over which there is less control in implementation. in reviewing a large number of studies, interventions, and outcomes, they tend to focus on average impacts. they generally do not explain the magnitude or variability of impacts across or within studies. very few address the programmatic reasons why some interventions work or don t work, nor do they assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions. objectives of the review this paper reviews recent impact evaluations of interventions and programs to improve child anth-ropometric outcomes height, weight, and birth weight with an emphasis on both the findings and limitations of the literature and on understanding what might happen in a non-research setting. it further reviews in greater detail the experience and lessons from evaluations of the impact of world bank-supported programs on nutrition outcomes. specifically, the review addresses four questions. first, what can be said about the impact of different interventions on children s anthropometric outcomes? second, how do these findings vary across settings and within target groups, and what accounts for this variability? third, what is the evidence of the cost-effectiveness of these interventions? finally, what have been the lessons from implementing impact evaluations of bank-supported programs with anthropometric impacts? while there are different dimensions of child nutri-tion that could be explored, the report focuses on child anthropometric outcomes -- weight, height, and birth weight. these are the most common nutrition outcome indicators in the literature and the most frequently monitored by national nutrition programs supported by the world bank. low weight for age (underweight) is also the indicator for one of the mdgs. methodology and scope forty-six nutrition impact evaluations published since 2000 were systematically reviewed. these evaluations assessed the impact of diverse interven-tions community nutrition programs, conditional and unconditional cash transfers, early child devel-opment programs, food aid, integrated health and nutrition services, and de-worming. all of the evaluations used research designs that compared the outcomes among those affected by the project to the counterfactual that is, what would have happened to a similar group of people in the absence of the intervention. about half used randomized assignment to create treatment and control groups, while the remainder used matching and various econometric techniques to construct a counterfactual. among the 46 evaluations, twelve assessed the im-pact of world bank-supported programs on nutri-tion outcomes in eight countries. while the broader review relies on the analysis of the published impact evaluations as the main source of data, for these twelve evaluations project documents and research outputs were reviewed and world bank staff, country officials and the evaluators and re-searchers who conducted the studies were interviewed. findings a wide range of interventions had a positive impact on indicators related to height, weight, wasting, and low birth weight. there were a total of 10 different outcome indica-tors for the four main anthropometric outcomes. a little more than half of the evaluations addressing a height-related indicator found program impacts on at least one group of children, and this was true for about the same share of interventions aimed at improving weight-related and wasting (low weight for height)-related indicators. about three-quarters of the 11 evaluations of interventions that aimed at improving birth weight indicators registered an impact in at least one specification, including five out of seven micronutrient interven-tions. there was no clear pattern of impacts across interventions in every intervention group there were examples of programs that did and did not have an impact on a given indicator, and with varying magnitude. evaluations of the nutritional impact of programs supported by the world bank, which are generally large-scale, complex, and implemented in low-capacity settings, show equally variable results. even controlling for the specific outcome indicator, studies often targeted children of different age groups that might be more or less susceptible to the interventions. it is thus difficult to point to inter-ventions that are systematically more effective than others in reducing malnutrition across diverse set-tings and age groups. differences in local context, variation in the age of the children studied, the length of exposure to the intervention, and differing methodologies of the studies account for much of the variability in results. context includes factors like the level and local determinants of malnutrition, differences in the characteristics of beneficiaries (including their age), the availability of service infrastructure, and the implementation capacity of government. outside of a research setting in the context of a large government program there are many things that can go wrong in either service delivery or the demand response that can compromise impact. beyond this, there are social factors like the status of women or the presence of civil unrest that can affect outcomes. these findings underscore the conclusion that it should not be assumed that an intervention found effective in a randomized controlled trial in a re-search setting will have the same effects when im-plemented under field conditions in a different set-ting. they also point to the need to understand the prevailing underlying causes of malnutrition in a given setting and the age groups most likely to benefit in selecting an intervention. further, impact evaluations need to supplement data measuring impact with data on service delivery and demand-side behavioral outcomes to demonstrate the plausibility of the findings, to understand what part of a program works, and to address weak links in the results chain to improve performance. there is scant evidence on the distribution of nutrition impacts who is benefiting and who is not or on the cost-effectiveness of interventions just because malnutrition is more common among the poor does not mean that they will disproportio-nately benefit from an intervention, particularly if acting on new knowledge or different incentives relies on access to education or quality services. only a third of the 46 evaluations looked at the distribution of impacts by gender, mother s education, poverty status, or availability of complementary health services. only nine assessed the impacts on nutritional outcomes of the poor compared with the non-poor. among the evaluations that did examine variation in results, several found that the children of more educated mothers or in better-off communities are be-nefitting the most. bank-supported cash transfers, community nutrition, and early child development programs in six of eight countries had some impact on child anthropometric outcomes. of the 12 impact evaluations of bank support, all but one were of large-scale government programs with multiple interventions and a long results chain. three-quarters found a positive impact on anthro-pometric outcomes of children in at least one age group, although the magnitude was in some cases not large or applied to a narrow age group. most of the impact evaluations involved assessment of completely new programs and involved world bank researchers. most used quasi-experimental evaluation designs and two-thirds assessed impact after at most 3 years of program implementation. only half of the evaluations documented the distribution of impacts and only a third presented information on the costs of the intervention (falling short of cost-effectiveness analysis). in two of the countries (colombia and the philippines) the evaluations likely had an impact on government policy or programs. lessons a number of lessons for development practi-tioners and evaluators arose from the review of impact evaluations of world bank nutrition support. for task managers: impact evaluations of interventions that are clearly beyond the means of the government to sustain are of limited relevance. the complexity, costs, and fiscal sustainability of the intervention should figure into the decision as to whether an impact evaluation is warranted. impact evaluations are often launched for the purpose of evaluating completely new pro-grams, but they may be equally or even more useful in improving the effectiveness of ongo-ing programs. there are methods for obtaining reliable impact evaluation results when randomized assignment of interventions is not possible for political, ethical, or practical reasons. for evaluators: in light of the challenges of evaluating large-scale programs with a long results chain, it is well worth the effort to assess the risks to disruption of the impact evaluation ahead of time and identify mitigation measures. the design and analysis of nutrition impact evaluations need to take into account the likely sensitivity of children of different ages to the intervention. for the purposes of correctly gauging im-pact, it is important to know exactly when delivery of an intervention took place in the field (as opposed to the official start of the program). evaluations need to be designed to provide evidence for timely decision-making, but with sufficient elapsed time for a plausible impact to have occurred. the relevance of impact evaluations for po-licymakers would be greatly enhanced if im-pact evaluations were to document both the

Tracking Progress on Child and Maternal Nutrition A Survival and Development Priority

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Author by : no defined
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 119
Isbn : 9280644823
Identifier : 9789280644821
Release : 2009
Publisher by : UNICEF
Category : Health & Fitness
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Description : Read Now Tracking Progress On Child And Maternal Nutrition by no defined and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. "provides information on nutrition strategies, progress made by programmes and current challenges, based on the most recent data available. the report profiles 24 countries where 80 per cent of the world's stunted children live"--publisher's description.

Vitamin A Supplementation A Decade of Progress

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Author by : Nita Dalmiya
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 32
Isbn : 9280641506
Identifier : 9789280641509
Release : 2007
Publisher by : UNICEF
Category : Health & Fitness
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Description : Read Now Vitamin A Supplementation by Nita Dalmiya and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. vitamin a deficiency affects some 127 million preschool children globally, putting them at increased risk of sickness and death as the deficiency leaves them vulnerable to infection and with reduced immunity to fight common childhood diseases. supplementation is cost-effective and has proven potential to reduce the yearly number of preventable child deaths by some 23 per cent. two annual doses of high-potency supplements, costing less than us $0.04 per child, can prevent and correct the deficiency. this report tracks the progress of supplementation programming following 10 years of global advocacy. it is a 'scorecard' for countries and the international community on progress in scaling up one of the most effective child survival interventions available.

Explaining Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries A Cross-country Analysis

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Author by : Lisa C. Smith
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 112
Isbn : 0896291146
Identifier : 9780896291140
Release : 2000
Publisher by : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now Explaining Child Malnutrition In Developing Countries by Lisa C. Smith and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. one in three preschool children in developing countries is undernourished. consequently, they are likely to have impaired immune systems, poor cognitive development, low productivity as adults, and susceptibility to diet-related chronic diseases such as hypertension and coronary heart disease later in life. undernourished female preschoolers are likely to grow into undernourished young women who are more likely to give birth to babies who are undernourished even before they are born, thus perpetuating the intergenerational transmission of deprivation. this report sheds light on some of the main causes of child malnutrition, projects how many children are likely to be malnourished in the year 2020 given current trends, and identifies priority actions for reducing malnutrition most quickly in the coming decades.

Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children Guidelines for the Management of Common Childhood Illnesses

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Author by : World Health Organization
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 412
Isbn : 9241548371
Identifier : 9789241548373
Release : 2013
Publisher by : World Health Organization
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now Pocket Book Of Hospital Care For Children by World Health Organization and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. the pocket book is for use by doctors, nurses and other health workers who are responsible for the care of young children at the first level referral hospitals. this second edition is based on evidence from several who updated and published clinical guidelines. it is for use in both inpatient and outpatient care in small hospitals with basic laboratory facilities and essential medicines. in some settings, these guidelines can be used in any facilities where sick children are admitted for inpatient care. the pocket book is one of a series of documents and tools that support the integrated management of childhood illness (imci). the guidelines require the hospital to have (1) the capacity to carry out certain essential investigations, such as pulse oximetry, blood glucose, blood smear examinations for malaria parasites, estimation of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and full blood count, blood group and cross-match, and basic microscopy of cerebrospinal fluid and urine; and where possible blood and urine culture, ultrasound and basic x-rays; (2) essential medicines for the care of seriously ill children. advanced and high care treatment options, such as intensive care or mechanical ventilation, are not described. these guidelines focus on the management of the major causes of childhood mortality in most developing countries, such as newborn problems, pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, meningitis, septicaemia, measles and related conditions, severe acute malnutrition and paediatric hiv/aids. it also covers some common surgical conditions that can be managed in small hospitals. details of the evidence on which the pocket book is based can be found onwho website from the published guidelines provided in the bibliography. these guidelines are applicable in most areas of the world and may be adapted to suit country specific circumstances.