Crop Protection In Medieval Agriculture

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Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture Studies in pre-modern organic agriculture

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Author by : Jan C. Zadoks
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 330
Isbn : 9088901872
Identifier : 9789088901874
Release : 2013-10-16
Publisher by : Sidestone Press
Category : History
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Description : Read Now Crop Protection In Medieval Agriculture by Jan C. Zadoks and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. mediterranean and west european pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised sections do occur. weeds, insects and diseases are described but identification in modern terms is not easy. the pre-modern ‘crop portfolio’ is well filled, certainly in the mediterranean area. the medieval ‘pest portfolio’ differs from the modern one because agriculture then was a low external input agriculture, and because the proportion of cultivated to non-cultivated land was drastically lower than today. the pre-modern ‘control portfolio’ is surprisingly rich, both in preventive and interventive measures. prevention was by risk management, intensive tillage, and careful storage. intervention was mechanical and chemical. chemical intervention used natural substances such as sulphur, pitch, and ‘botanicals’. some fifty plant species are mentioned in a crop protection context. though application methods look rather modern they are typically low-tech. among them are seed disinfection, spraying, dusting, fumigation, grease banding, wound care, and hand-picking but also scarification, now outdated. the reality of pest outbreaks and other damages is explored as to frequency, intensity, and extent. information on the practical use of the recommended treatments is scanty. if applied, their effectiveness remains enigmatic. three medieval agronomists are at the heart of this book, but historical developments in crop protection from early punic, greek, and roman authors to the first modern author are outlined. the readership of these writers was the privileged class of landowners but hints pointing to the exchange of ideas between them and the common peasant were found. consideration is given to the pre-modern reasoning in matters of crop protection. comparison of pre-modern crop protection and its counterpart in modern organic agriculture is difficult because of drastic changes in the relation between crop areas and non-crop areas, and because of the great difference in yield levels then and now, with several associated differences.

Crop Protection and Sustainable Agriculture

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Author by : Derek J. Chadwick
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 296
Isbn : 0470514485
Identifier : 9780470514481
Release : 2008-04-30
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Category : Technology & Engineering
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Description : Read Now Crop Protection And Sustainable Agriculture by Derek J. Chadwick and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. the increase in the world population and changes in welfare have led to an enormously expanding demand for food. in the industrialized world, food surpluses rather than shortages are a problem together with adverse environmental impacts from the overuse of chemicals and excessive exploitation of agricultural land. in the developing world, food production cannot keep up with population growth and the gap between demand and supply is growing. this book explores the theme of sustainable agricultural development in the developing world, with a particular focus on crop protection. includes chapters on the ecology of food production, on sustainable agriculture and crop protection methods, on the economics of food production and more.

Neglected Crops 1492 from a Different Perspective

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Author by : J. Esteban Hernández Bermejo
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 341
Isbn : 9789251032176
Identifier : 9251032173
Release : 1994-01-01
Publisher by : Food & Agriculture Org.
Category : Crops
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Medieval Agriculture, the Southern French Countryside, and the Early Cistercians: A Study of Forty-three Monasteries

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Author by : Constance Berman
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 179
Isbn : 9781422374498
Identifier : 1422374491
Release : 2007-12-01
Publisher by : American Philosophical Society
Category :
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Description : Read Now Medieval Agriculture The Southern French Countryside And The Early Cistercians A Study Of Forty Three Monasteries by Constance Berman and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. a study of medieval agriculture, of the rural world of southern france, & of the early corporate farms of the new religious order of citeaux, founded in burgundy in 1098 & imported into southern france in the mid-12th century. it also assesses the cistercians¿ contributions to southern-french economic development in the 12th & 13th centuries. the study shows that the cistercians in that region did not acquire lands for their huge, newly consolidated farms -- the granges -- through clearance & reclamation of unoccupied lands as traditional accounts suggest, but rather through the careful purchase & reorganization of holdings which had often had a long history of cultivation. illustrations.

History of the Italian Agricultural Landscape

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Author by : Emilio Sereni
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 436
Isbn : 1400864453
Identifier : 9781400864454
Release : 2014-07-14
Publisher by : Princeton University Press
Category : History
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Description : Read Now History Of The Italian Agricultural Landscape by Emilio Sereni and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. emilio sereni's classic work is now available in an english language edition. history of the italian agricultural landscape is a synthesis of the agricultural history of italy in its economic, social, and ecological context, from antiquity to the mid-twentieth century. from his perspective in the italian tradition of cultural marxism, sereni guides the reader through the millennial changes that have affected the agriculture and ecology of the regions of italy, as well as through the successes and failures of farmers and technicians in antiquity, the middle ages, the renaissance, and the industrial revolution. in this sweeping historical survey, he describes attempts by successive generations to adapt italy's natural environment for the purposes of agriculture and to respond to its changing ecological problems. history of the italian agricultural landscape first appeared in 1961. at the time of its publication it was a pathbreaking work, parallel in its importance for italy to marc bloc's masterwork of 1931, the original characteristics of french rural history. sereni invented the concept of the historical "agricultural landscape": an interdisciplinary characterization of rural life involving economic and social history, linguistics, archeology, art history, and ecological studies. originally published in 1997. the princeton legacy library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of princeton university press. these editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. the goal of the princeton legacy library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by princeton university press since its founding in 1905.

Essays on Medieval Agriculture and General Problems of the Medieval Economy

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Author by : M. M. Postan
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 302
Isbn : 9780521088466
Identifier : 0521088461
Release : 2008-10-30
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Category : Business & Economics
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Description : Read Now Essays On Medieval Agriculture And General Problems Of The Medieval Economy by M. M. Postan and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. includes the economic foundations of medieval society, the rise of a money economy, the chronology of labour services and the charters of the villeins.

Silicon in Agriculture From Theory to Practice

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Author by : Yongchao Liang
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 235
Isbn : 9401799784
Identifier : 9789401799782
Release : 2015-06-18
Publisher by : Springer
Category : Technology & Engineering
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Description : Read Now Silicon In Agriculture by Yongchao Liang and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this book mainly presents the current state of knowledge on the use of of silicon (si) in agriculture, including plants, soils and fertilizers. at the same time, it discusses the future interdisciplinary research that will be needed to further our knowledge and potential applications of si in agriculture and in the environmental sciences in general. as the second most abundant element both on the surface of the earth’s crust and in soils, si is an agronomically essential or quasi-essential element for improving the yield and quality of crops. addressing the use of si in agriculture in both theory and practice, the book is primarily intended for graduate students and researchers in various fields of the agricultural, biological, and environmental sciences, as well as for agronomic and fertilizer industry experts and advisors. dr. yongchao liang is a full professor at the college of environmental and resource sciences of the zhejiang university, hangzhou, china. dr. miroslav nikolic is a research professor at the institute for multidisciplinary research of the university of belgrade, serbia. dr. richard bélanger is a full professor at the department of plant pathology of the laval university, canada and holder of a canada research chair in plant protection. dr. haijun gong is a full professor at college of horticulture, northwest a&f university, china. dr. alin song is an associate professor at institute of agricultural resources and regional planning, chinese academy of agricultural sciences, beijing, china.

Domesday England

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Author by : H. C. Darby
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 432
Isbn : 9780521310260
Identifier : 0521310261
Release : 1986-08-07
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Category : History
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Description : Read Now Domesday England by H. C. Darby and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. domesday book is the most famous english public record, and it is probably the most remarkable statistical document in the history of europe. it calls itself merely a descriptio and it acquired its name in the following century because its authority seemed comparable to that of the book by which one day all will be judged (revelation 20:12). it is not surprising that so many scholars have felt its fascination, and have discussed again and again what it says about economic, social and legal matters. but it also tells us much about the countryside of the eleventh century, and the present volume is the seventh of a series concerned with this geographical information. as the final volume, it seeks to sum up the main features of the domesday geography of england as a whole, and to reconstruct, as far as the materials allow, the scene which king william's clerks saw as they made their great inquest.

A History of World Agriculture From the Neolithic Age to the Current Crisis

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Author by : Marcel Mazoyer
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 528
Isbn : 1583671218
Identifier : 9781583671214
Release : 2006-06-01
Publisher by : NYU Press
Category : Business & Economics
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Description : Read Now A History Of World Agriculture by Marcel Mazoyer and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. only once we understand the long history of human efforts to draw sustenance from the land can we grasp the nature of the crisis that faces humankind today, as hundreds of millions of people are faced with famine or flight from the land. from neolithic times through the earliest civilizations of the ancient near east, in savannahs, river valleys and the terraces created by the incas in the andean mountains, an increasing range of agricultural techniques have developed in response to very different conditions. these developments are recounted in this book, with detailed attention to the ways in which plants, animals, soil, climate, and society have interacted. mazoyer and roudart’s a history of world agriculture is a path-breaking and panoramic work, beginning with the emergence of agriculture after thousands of years in which human societies had depended on hunting and gathering, showing how agricultural techniques developed in the different regions of the world, and how this extraordinary wealth of knowledge, tradition and natural variety is endangered today by global capitialism, as it forces the unequal agrarian heritages of the world to conform to the norms of profit. during the twentieth century, mechanization, motorization and specialization have brought to a halt the pattern of cultural and environmental responses that characterized the global history of agriculture until then. today a small number of corporations have the capacity to impose the farming methods on the planet that they find most profitable. mazoyer and roudart propose an alternative global strategy that can safegaurd the economies of the poor countries, reinvigorate the global economy, and create a livable future for mankind.

History of Agriculture in India, Up to C. 1200 A.D.

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Author by : Vinod Chandra Srivastava
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 912
Isbn : 9788180695216
Identifier : 8180695212
Release : 2008
Publisher by : Concept Publishing Company
Category : Agriculture
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Description : Read Now History Of Agriculture In India Up To C 1200 A D by Vinod Chandra Srivastava and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. history of agriculture in india (up to c.1200 ad), part 1, reconstructs the evolution of agriculture in india up to c.1200ad. it is a synthesis and summation of existing knowledge on the history of agriculture in ancient india on the combined bases of archaeological and literary sources against the backdrop of asian history in general. besides summing up the existing knowledge, it opens new vistas for further research on many debated issues in the history of agriculture in ancient india. the volume addresses the vexed and controversial questions on the origin, antiquity and sources of indian agricultural history. based on researches from sites of vindhya, ganga region, plant remains, agricultural tools, pots, dental pathology, and settlement remains, it is an informed and highly researched work on the origin and antiquity of cultivation in india. for a historical study of agriculture, pali, sangam. sanskrit and the graeco-roman literatures have been utilized. art and literary sources have also been used to reconstruct history.

Medieval Folk Astronomy and Agriculture in Arabia and the Yemen

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Author by : Daniel Martin Varisco
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 338
Isbn :
Identifier : IND:30000054516996
Release : 1997-01-01
Publisher by : Variorum Publishing
Category : Technology & Engineering
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Description : Read Now Medieval Folk Astronomy And Agriculture In Arabia And The Yemen by Daniel Martin Varisco and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. the strength of professor varisco's work lies in his combination of ethnographic fieldwork among highland yemeni farmers with an extensive study of medieval arabic manuscripts on folk astronomy and agriculture. the opening articles discuss the astronomical concept of the 'lunar stations' in pre-islamic arabia and as developed in arab astronomy and almanac lore; subsequent ones expand on the significance of this for an agricultural society, and examine a unique corpus of yemeni agricultural almanacs, dating from the rasulid period (13th-15th centuries) to the present. a further theme is that of traditional yemeni agriculture, with studies on irrigation practices, plough cultivation, sorghum production, and indigenous plant protection methods, as well as the use of star calendars for seasonal markers.

Medieval Farming and Technology The Impact of Agricultural Change in Northwest Europe

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Author by : Grenville G. Astill
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 321
Isbn : 9789004105829
Identifier : 9004105824
Release : 1997
Publisher by : BRILL
Category : Technology & Engineering
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Description : Read Now Medieval Farming And Technology by Grenville G. Astill and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this is the first of three planned volumes which deal with the techniques and technology of agriculture in europe in the period from 600 a.d. down to the 17th century. the focus of this first volume is scandinavia, the british isles, northern germany, the low countries and northern france. the volume discusses methodological approaches and their limitations, the development of medieval agriculture in terms of the transmission of technological ideas, improvements in productivity, regional variations, social responses to agricultural technology, and those common trends that unite the northwest european region.the volume integrates material derived from the great advances made in medieval archaeology and the historical study of landscapes during the past 30 years and has a supranational character. it will be of interest to all those working on the social, economic and political history of northwest europe in the medieval and early modern periods as well as to those undertaking research in the specific field of the history of technology.technology and change in historythis new series of scholarly surveys is intended to offer an updating of the discussion of questions regarding the nature of technology and technological change first broached in the nine-volume survey by r. forbes: studies in ancient technology. the series will however take in not only the original scope of forbes' work, namely the ancient near east and the greco-roman world, but will extend beyond this to cover the medieval and early modern periods.7the volumes in the series will be in english, of 300-800 pp., divided into 10-15 topical chapters and aim to present to scholars, graduate students and to non-specialist scholars the current state of knowledge in the various fields in the history of technology. they collect, assimilate and present facts, opinion, sources, and literature in the accessible way that forbes did, but will also identify issues that have not been plainly addressed and will in doing so indicate where the field might profitably be going.including notes and numerous illustrations, the volumes address questions of a primarily historical nature, such as: 1. what technological options were open to peoples at different times and different places? 2. what options did they choose and why? 3. what impact did this have on their contemporaries and successors (and on their technological choices)?questions and problems more proper to political, social and economic history will also be touched upon, but the starting point and focus of this new series is the history of technology.volumes planned in the series include:r.j. curtis: food technology in antiquity (1999)m.-c. deprez-masson and n.j. mayhew (eds.): metal technology: 600-1800 a.d. (2001)p. squatriti (ed.): medieval hydrotechnology (2001)o. wikander (ed.): ancient water technology (1998)g.r.h. wright: ancient building technology (1999)j. langdon and g. astill (eds.): agrarian technology in the middle ages: northwest europe (1996)