Crop Protection In Medieval Agriculture

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Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture Studies in pre-modern organic agriculture

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Author by : Jan C. Zadoks
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 330
Isbn : 9088901872
Identifier : 9789088901874
Release : 2013-10-16
Publisher by : Sidestone Press
Category : History
Total Download : 9298177
Total Read : 6828518
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Description : Read Now Crop Protection In Medieval Agriculture by Jan C. Zadoks and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. mediterranean and west european pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised sections do occur. weeds, insects and diseases are described but identification in modern terms is not easy. the pre-modern ‘crop portfolio’ is well filled, certainly in the mediterranean area. the medieval ‘pest portfolio’ differs from the modern one because agriculture then was a low external input agriculture, and because the proportion of cultivated to non-cultivated land was drastically lower than today. the pre-modern ‘control portfolio’ is surprisingly rich, both in preventive and interventive measures. prevention was by risk management, intensive tillage, and careful storage. intervention was mechanical and chemical. chemical intervention used natural substances such as sulphur, pitch, and ‘botanicals’. some fifty plant species are mentioned in a crop protection context. though application methods look rather modern they are typically low-tech. among them are seed disinfection, spraying, dusting, fumigation, grease banding, wound care, and hand-picking but also scarification, now outdated. the reality of pest outbreaks and other damages is explored as to frequency, intensity, and extent. information on the practical use of the recommended treatments is scanty. if applied, their effectiveness remains enigmatic. three medieval agronomists are at the heart of this book, but historical developments in crop protection from early punic, greek, and roman authors to the first modern author are outlined. the readership of these writers was the privileged class of landowners but hints pointing to the exchange of ideas between them and the common peasant were found. consideration is given to the pre-modern reasoning in matters of crop protection. comparison of pre-modern crop protection and its counterpart in modern organic agriculture is difficult because of drastic changes in the relation between crop areas and non-crop areas, and because of the great difference in yield levels then and now, with several associated differences.

A History of World Agriculture From the Neolithic Age to the Current Crisis

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Author by : Marcel Mazoyer, Laurence Roudart
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 528
Isbn : 1583671218
Identifier : 9781583671214
Release : 2006-06-01
Publisher by : NYU Press
Category : Business & Economics
Total Download : 5307700
Total Read : 4966489
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Description : Read Now A History Of World Agriculture by Marcel Mazoyer, Laurence Roudart and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. only once we understand the long history of human efforts to draw sustenance from the land can we grasp the nature of the crisis that faces humankind today, as hundreds of millions of people are faced with famine or flight from the land. from neolithic times through the earliest civilizations of the ancient near east, in savannahs, river valleys and the terraces created by the incas in the andean mountains, an increasing range of agricultural techniques have developed in response to very different conditions. these developments are recounted in this book, with detailed attention to the ways in which plants, animals, soil, climate, and society have interacted. mazoyer and roudart’s a history of world agriculture is a path-breaking and panoramic work, beginning with the emergence of agriculture after thousands of years in which human societies had depended on hunting and gathering, showing how agricultural techniques developed in the different regions of the world, and how this extraordinary wealth of knowledge, tradition and natural variety is endangered today by global capitialism, as it forces the unequal agrarian heritages of the world to conform to the norms of profit. during the twentieth century, mechanization, motorization and specialization have brought to a halt the pattern of cultural and environmental responses that characterized the global history of agriculture until then. today a small number of corporations have the capacity to impose the farming methods on the planet that they find most profitable. mazoyer and roudart propose an alternative global strategy that can safegaurd the economies of the poor countries, reinvigorate the global economy, and create a livable future for mankind.

Anglo-Saxon Farms and Farming

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Author by : Debby Banham, Rosamond Faith
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 336
Isbn : 0199207941
Identifier : 9780199207947
Release : 2014
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
Category : History
Total Download : 2389700
Total Read : 2014739
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Description : Read Now Anglo Saxon Farms And Farming by Debby Banham, Rosamond Faith and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. farming was the basis of the wealth that made england worth invading, twice, in the eleventh century, while trade and manufacturing were insignificant by modern standards. in anglo-saxon farms and farming, the authors employ a wide range of evidence to investigate how anglo-saxon farmers produced the food and other agricultural products that sustained english economy, society, and culture before the norman conquest. the first part of the volume draws on written and pictorial sources, archaeology, place-names, and the history of the english language to discover what crops and livestock people raised, and what tools and techniques were used to produce them. in part two, using a series of landscape studies - place-names, maps, and the landscape itself, the authors explore how these techniques might have been combined into working agricultural regimes in different parts of the country. a picture emerges of an agriculture that changed from an essentially prehistoric state in the sub-roman period to what was recognisably the beginning of a tradition that only ended with the second world war. anglo-saxon farming was not only sustainable, but infinitely adaptable to different soils and geology, and to a climate changing as unpredictably as it is today.

So Shall You Reap Farming And Crops In Human Affairs

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Author by : Otto Solbrig, Dorothy J. Solbrig
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 304
Isbn : 1610913264
Identifier : 9781610913263
Release : 1996-08-01
Publisher by : Island Press
Category : Nature
Total Download : 6102425
Total Read : 7490487
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Description : Read Now So Shall You Reap by Otto Solbrig, Dorothy J. Solbrig and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. so shall you reap is a broad-gauged exploration of the intersections of farming and history. beginning with the prehistorical era, otto and dorothy solbrig describe the evolution of farming. when and how did people learn to irrigate, to fertilize, to rotate their crops -- and why? along with its fundamental importance to history, farming has radically altered the physical world. natural landscapes have been completely transformed to provide room for growth on a large scale of a few species of plants and even fewer species of domesticated animals. agriculture has altered the earth's biosphere and changed its geosphere: the soil has been modified, forests have been felled, swamps have been drained, rivers have been dammed and diverted. so shall you reap presents a fresh and informed perspective on how farming and the crops we grow have changed us and our environment. by understanding the nature of the origins and evolution of agriculture, we will be better prepared to anticipate what the future may hold in store, and what must be done to increase food production while minimizing environmental problems.

The Open Fields of England

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Author by : David Hall
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 448
Isbn : 0191007463
Identifier : 9780191007460
Release : 2014-06-19
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
Category : History
Total Download : 3221148
Total Read : 9040149
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Description : Read Now The Open Fields Of England by David Hall and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. the open fields of england describes the open-field system of agriculture that operated in medieval england before the establishment of present-day farms surrounded by hedges or walls. the volume encompasses a wide range of primary data not previously assembled, to which are added the results of new research based upon a fifty-year study of open-field remains and their related documents. the whole of england is examined, describing eight different kinds of field-system that have been identified, and relating them to their associated land-use and settlement. details of field structure are explained, such as the demesne, the lord's land, and the tenants' holdings, as well as tenurial arrangements and farming methods. previous explanations of open-field origins and possible antecedents to medieval fields are discussed. various types of archaeological and historical evidence relating to saxon-period settlements and fields are presented, followed by the development of a new theory to explain the lay-out and planned nature of many field systems found in the central belt of england. of particular interest is the gazetteer, which is organized by historic counties. each county has a summary of its fields, including tabulated data and sources for future research, touching on the demesne, yardland size, work-service, assarts, and physical remains of ridge and furrow. the gazetteer acts as a national hand-list of field systems, opening the subject up to further research and essential to scholars of medieval agriculture.

Medieval Farming and Technology The Impact of Agricultural Change in Northwest Europe

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Author by : Grenville G. Astill, John Langdon
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 321
Isbn : 9789004105829
Identifier : 9004105824
Release : 1997
Publisher by : BRILL
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total Download : 6141096
Total Read : 9120915
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Description : Read Now Medieval Farming And Technology by Grenville G. Astill, John Langdon and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this is the first of three planned volumes which deal with the techniques and technology of agriculture in europe in the period from 600 a.d. down to the 17th century. the focus of this first volume is scandinavia, the british isles, northern germany, the low countries and northern france. the volume discusses methodological approaches and their limitations, the development of medieval agriculture in terms of the transmission of technological ideas, improvements in productivity, regional variations, social responses to agricultural technology, and those common trends that unite the northwest european region.the volume integrates material derived from the great advances made in medieval archaeology and the historical study of landscapes during the past 30 years and has a supranational character. it will be of interest to all those working on the social, economic and political history of northwest europe in the medieval and early modern periods as well as to those undertaking research in the specific field of the history of technology.technology and change in historythis new series of scholarly surveys is intended to offer an updating of the discussion of questions regarding the nature of technology and technological change first broached in the nine-volume survey by r. forbes: studies in ancient technology. the series will however take in not only the original scope of forbes' work, namely the ancient near east and the greco-roman world, but will extend beyond this to cover the medieval and early modern periods.7the volumes in the series will be in english, of 300-800 pp., divided into 10-15 topical chapters and aim to present to scholars, graduate students and to non-specialist scholars the current state of knowledge in the various fields in the history of technology. they collect, assimilate and present facts, opinion, sources, and literature in the accessible way that forbes did, but will also identify issues that have not been plainly addressed and will in doing so indicate where the field might profitably be going.including notes and numerous illustrations, the volumes address questions of a primarily historical nature, such as: 1. what technological options were open to peoples at different times and different places? 2. what options did they choose and why? 3. what impact did this have on their contemporaries and successors (and on their technological choices)?questions and problems more proper to political, social and economic history will also be touched upon, but the starting point and focus of this new series is the history of technology.volumes planned in the series include:r.j. curtis: food technology in antiquity (1999)m.-c. deprez-masson and n.j. mayhew (eds.): metal technology: 600-1800 a.d. (2001)p. squatriti (ed.): medieval hydrotechnology (2001)o. wikander (ed.): ancient water technology (1998)g.r.h. wright: ancient building technology (1999)j. langdon and g. astill (eds.): agrarian technology in the middle ages: northwest europe (1996)

The Economy of Medieval Hungary

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Author by :
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 668
Isbn : 9004363904
Identifier : 9789004363908
Release : 2018-04-19
Publisher by : BRILL
Category : History
Total Download : 6501475
Total Read : 2395574
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Description : Read Now The Economy Of Medieval Hungary by and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. the economy of medieval hungary is the first concise, english-language volume on the economic life of medieval hungary, covering the structures of economic life, human-nature interactions in production, taxation, money and commerce.

Crop Protection and Sustainable Agriculture

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Author by : Derek J. Chadwick, Joan Marsh
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 296
Isbn : 0470514485
Identifier : 9780470514481
Release : 2008-04-30
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total Download : 7137366
Total Read : 5476485
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Description : Read Now Crop Protection And Sustainable Agriculture by Derek J. Chadwick, Joan Marsh and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. the increase in the world population and changes in welfare have led to an enormously expanding demand for food. in the industrialized world, food surpluses rather than shortages are a problem together with adverse environmental impacts from the overuse of chemicals and excessive exploitation of agricultural land. in the developing world, food production cannot keep up with population growth and the gap between demand and supply is growing. this book explores the theme of sustainable agricultural development in the developing world, with a particular focus on crop protection. includes chapters on the ecology of food production, on sustainable agriculture and crop protection methods, on the economics of food production and more.

Routledge Handbook of Agricultural Biodiversity

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Author by : Danny Hunter, Luigi Guarino, Charles Spillane, Peter McKeown
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 692
Isbn : 9780415746922
Identifier : 0415746922
Release : 2017
Publisher by :
Category : Agrobiodiversity
Total Download : 7055825
Total Read : 7247078
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Description : Read Now Routledge Handbook Of Agricultural Biodiversity by Danny Hunter, Luigi Guarino, Charles Spillane, Peter McKeown and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. the world relies on very few crop and animal species for agriculture and to supply its food needs. in recent decades there has been increased appreciation of the risk this implies for food security and quality, especially in times of environmental change. as a result, agricultural biodiversity has moved to the top of research and policy agendas. this handbook presents a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of agricultural biodiversity in a series of specially commissioned chapters. it draws on multiple disciplines including plant and animal genetics, ecology, crop and animal science, food studies and nutrition, as well as social science subjects which explore the socio-economic, cultural, institutional, legal and policy aspects of agricultural biodiversity. it focuses not only on the core requirements to deliver a sustainable agriculture and food supply, but also highlights the additional ecosystem services provided by a diverse and resilient agricultural landscape and farming practices. the book provides an indispensible reference textbook for a wide range range of courses in agriculture, ecology, biodiversity conservation and environmental studies.

Agricultural Input Subsidies The Recent Malawi Experience

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Author by : Ephraim Chirwa, Andrew Dorward
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 320
Isbn : 0199683522
Identifier : 9780199683529
Release : 2013-09-26
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Category : Business & Economics
Total Download : 5444842
Total Read : 798473
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Description : Read Now Agricultural Input Subsidies by Ephraim Chirwa, Andrew Dorward and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this books examines an increasingly popular but controversial set of agricultural development programmes promoting smallholder agriculture and food security in low income countries, particularly in africa, drawing on and developing theory on these programmes, and on a wider review of recent experience in africa, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the historical, political and agro-economic roots and context of malawi's agricultural programme from 2005 to2011, a large and controversial programme that has been the subject a very considerable but unfortunately little informed international debate. as well as a fascinating account of the history ofdevelopment and current constraints on smallholder farming in malawi and of the implementation of a large scale national programme, this provides critical insights into the potential benefits and risks with such programmes, and on political and technical issues that are critical in success or failure.

Empires of Medieval West Africa Ghana, Mali, and Songhay

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Author by : David C. Conrad
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 152
Isbn : 1604131640
Identifier : 9781604131642
Release : 2009-11
Publisher by : Infobase Publishing
Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
Total Download : 631064
Total Read : 5572408
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Description : Read Now Empires Of Medieval West Africa by David C. Conrad and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. explores empires of medieval west africa.

Sapiens A Brief History of Humankind

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Author by : Yuval Noah Harari
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 464
Isbn : 9780771038518
Identifier : 0771038518
Release : 2016-05-10
Publisher by : Signal
Category :
Total Download : 4379360
Total Read : 7045411
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Description : Read Now Sapiens by Yuval Noah Harari and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. destined to become a modern classic in the vein of guns, germs, and steel, sapiens is a lively, groundbreaking history of humankind told from a unique perspective. 100,000 years ago, at least six species of human inhabited the earth. today there is just one. us. homo sapiens. how did our species succeed in the battle for dominance? why did our foraging ancestors come together to create cities and kingdoms? how did we come to believe in gods, nations, and human rights; to trust money, books, and laws; and to be enslaved by bureaucracy, timetables, and consumerism? and what will our world be like in the millennia to come? in sapiens, dr. yuval noah harari spans the whole of human history, from the very first humans to walk the earth to the radical -- and sometimes devastating -- breakthroughs of the cognitive, agricultural, and scientific revolutions. drawing on insights from biology, anthropology, palaeontology, and economics, he explores how the currents of history have shaped our human societies, the animals and plants around us, and even our personalities. have we become happier as history has unfolded? can we ever free our behaviour from the heritage of our ancestors? and what, if anything, can we do to influence the course of the centuries to come? bold, wide-ranging and provocative, sapiens challenges everything we thought we knew about being human: our thoughts, our actions, our power...and our future.

Animals in Saxon & Scandinavian England Backbones of Economy and Society

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Author by : Matilda Holmes
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 220
Isbn : 9789088902666
Identifier : 9088902666
Release : 2014
Publisher by : Casemate Publishers
Category : History
Total Download : 4081692
Total Read : 5021106
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Description : Read Now Animals In Saxon Scandinavian England by Matilda Holmes and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. in this book an analysis of over 300 animal bone assemblages from english saxon and scandinavian sites is presented. the data set is summarised in extensive tables for use as comparanda for future archaeozoological studies. animals in saxon and scandinavian england takes as its core four broad areas of analysis. the first is an investigation of the diet of the population, and how food was used to establish social boundaries. increasingly diverse diets are recognised, with high-status populations distinguishing themselves from other social sectors through the way food was redistributed and the diversity of taxa consumed. secondly, the role of animals in the economy is considered, looking at how animal husbandry feeds into underlying modes of production throughout the saxon period. from the largely self-sufficient early saxon phase animal husbandry becomes more specialised to supply increasingly urban settlements. the ensuing third deliberation takes into account the foodways and interactions between producer and consumer sites, considering the distribution of food and raw materials between farm, table and craft worker. fundamental changes in the nature of the saxon economy distinguish a move away from food renders in the middle saxon phase to market-based provisioning; opening the way for greater autonomy of supply and demand. finally, the role of wics and burhs as centres of production is investigated, particularly the organisation of manufacture and provisioning with raw materials.

Farming Transformed in Anglo-Saxon England Agriculture in the Long Eighth Century

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Author by : Mark McKarracher
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 144
Isbn : 1911188348
Identifier : 9781911188346
Release : 2018-02-21
Publisher by :
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 5247750
Total Read : 1011973
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Description : Read Now Farming Transformed In Anglo Saxon England by Mark McKarracher and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. anglo-saxon farming has traditionally been seen as the wellspring of english agriculture, setting the pattern for 1000 years to come – but it was more important than that. a rich harvest of archaeological data is now revealing the untold story of agricultural innovation, the beginnings of a revolution, in the age of bede. armed with a powerful new dataset, farming transformed explores fundamental questions about the minutiae of early medieval farming and its wider relevance. how old were sheep left to grow, for example, and what pathologies did cattle sustain? what does wheat chaff have to do with lordship and the market economy? what connects ovens in roman germany with barley maltings in early medieval northamptonshire? and just how interested were saxon nuns in cultivating the opium poppy? farming transformed is the first book to draw together the variegated evidence of pollen, sediments, charred seeds, animal bones, watermills, corn-drying ovens, granaries and stockyards on an extensive, regional scale. the result is an inter-disciplinary dataset of unprecedented scope and size, which reveals how cereal cultivation boomed, and new watermills, granaries and ovens were erected to cope with – and flaunt – the fat of the land. as arable farming grew at the expense of pasture, sheep and cattle came under closer management and lived longer lives, yielding more wool, dairy goods, and traction power for plowing. these and other innovations are found to be concentrated at royal, aristocratic and monastic centers, placing lordship at the forefront of agricultural innovation, and farming as the force behind kingdom-formation and economic resurgence in the seventh and eighth centuries.

Medieval Agriculture, the Southern French Countryside, and the Early Cistercians: A Study of Forty-three Monasteries

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Author by : Constance Berman
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 179
Isbn : 9781422374498
Identifier : 1422374491
Release : 2007-12-01
Publisher by : American Philosophical Society
Category :
Total Download : 2492339
Total Read : 2851466
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Description : Read Now Medieval Agriculture The Southern French Countryside And The Early Cistercians A Study Of Forty Three Monasteries by Constance Berman and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. a study of medieval agriculture, of the rural world of southern france, & of the early corporate farms of the new religious order of citeaux, founded in burgundy in 1098 & imported into southern france in the mid-12th century. it also assesses the cistercians¿ contributions to southern-french economic development in the 12th & 13th centuries. the study shows that the cistercians in that region did not acquire lands for their huge, newly consolidated farms -- the granges -- through clearance & reclamation of unoccupied lands as traditional accounts suggest, but rather through the careful purchase & reorganization of holdings which had often had a long history of cultivation. illustrations.

Arthur and the Kings of Britain The Historical Truth Behind the Myths

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Author by : Miles Russell
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 336
Isbn : 9781445682822
Identifier : 1445682826
Release : 2018-06-15
Publisher by :
Category :
Total Download : 1269452
Total Read : 8039619
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Description : Read Now Arthur And The Kings Of Britain by Miles Russell and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. written in 1136 by geoffrey of monmouth, the historia regum britanniae (history of the kings of britain) purported to chronicle the british monarchy from the arrival of the trojan brutus, grandson of aeneas, through to the seventh century ad. the historia was a medieval best-seller, and copies spread across the whole of western europe. it was the first work to outline the story of king arthur.the historia has long been dismissed as an unreliable piece of medieval propaganda. a new examination of the text, however, shows that it is very much more than that. miles russell explains how individual elements can be traced back to the first century bc, a time when britain was making first contact with rome. geoffrey of monmouth's skill was to weave these early traditions together with material culled from post-roman sources in order to create a national epic. in doing so, he also created king arthur, a composite character whose real origins and context are explained here.this important work establishes geoffrey of monmouth as no mere peddler of historical fiction, but as the man who preserved the earliest foundation myths of britain. it is time to re-evaluate the historia regum britanniaeand shine a new light into the so-called 'dark ages'.