Integrating Clinical Research Into Epidemic Response The Ebola Experience

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Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response The Ebola Experience

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Author by : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 342
Isbn : 0309457769
Identifier : 9780309457767
Release : 2017-07-26
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now Integrating Clinical Research Into Epidemic Response by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. the 2014â€"2015 ebola epidemic in western africa was the longest and most deadly ebola epidemic in history, resulting in 28,616 cases and 11,310 deaths in guinea, liberia, and sierra leone. the ebola virus has been known since 1976, when two separate outbreaks were identified in the democratic republic of congo (then zaire) and south sudan (then sudan). however, because all ebola outbreaks prior to that in west africa in 2014â€"2015 were relatively isolated and of short duration, little was known about how to best manage patients to improve survival, and there were no approved therapeutics or vaccines. when the world heath organization declared the 2014-2015 epidemic a public health emergency of international concern in august 2014, several teams began conducting formal clinical trials in the ebola affected countries during the outbreak. integrating clinical research into epidemic response: the ebola experience assesses the value of the clinical trials held during the 2014â€"2015 epidemic and makes recommendations about how the conduct of trials could be improved in the context of a future international emerging or re-emerging infectious disease events.

The Ebola Epidemic in West Africa Proceedings of a Workshop

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Author by : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 136
Isbn : 0309450063
Identifier : 9780309450065
Release : 2016-12-30
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now The Ebola Epidemic In West Africa by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. the most recent ebola epidemic that began in late 2013 alerted the entire world to the gaps in infectious disease emergency preparedness and response. the regional outbreak that progressed to a significant public health emergency of international concern (pheic) in a matter of months killed 11,310 and infected more than 28,616. while this outbreak bears some unique distinctions to past outbreaks, many characteristics remain the same and contributed to tragic loss of human life and unnecessary expenditure of capital: insufficient knowledge of the disease, its reservoirs, and its transmission; delayed prevention efforts and treatment; poor control of the disease in hospital settings; and inadequate community and international responses. recognizing the opportunity to learn from the countless lessons of this epidemic, the national academies of sciences, engineering, and medicine convened a workshop in march 2015 to discuss the challenges to successful outbreak responses at the scientific, clinical, and global health levels. workshop participants explored the epidemic from multiple perspectives, identified important questions about ebola that remained unanswered, and sought to apply this understanding to the broad challenges posed by ebola and other emerging pathogens, to prevent the international community from being taken by surprise once again in the face of these threats. this publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

The Neglected Dimension of Global Security A Framework to Counter Infectious Disease Crises

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Author by : National Academy of Medicine, Secretariat
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 142
Isbn : 0309390931
Identifier : 9780309390934
Release : 2016-06-16
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now The Neglected Dimension Of Global Security by National Academy of Medicine, Secretariat and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. since the 2014 ebola outbreak many public- and private-sector leaders have seen a need for improved management of global public health emergencies. the effects of the ebola epidemic go well beyond the three hardest-hit countries and beyond the health sector. education, child protection, commerce, transportation, and human rights have all suffered. the consequences and lethality of ebola have increased interest in coordinated global response to infectious threats, many of which could disrupt global health and commerce far more than the recent outbreak. in order to explore the potential for improving international management and response to outbreaks the national academy of medicine agreed to manage an international, independent, evidence-based, authoritative, multistakeholder expert commission. as part of this effort, the institute of medicine convened four workshops in summer of 2015. this commission report considers the evidence supplied by these workshops and offers conclusions and actionable recommendations to guide policy makers, international funders, civil society organizations, and the private sector.

Ebola Virus Disease From Origin to Outbreak

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Author by : Adnan Qureshi
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 216
Isbn : 0128042427
Identifier : 9780128042427
Release : 2016-01-09
Publisher by : Academic Press
Category : Science
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Description : Read Now Ebola Virus Disease by Adnan Qureshi and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. ebola virus disease: from origins to outbreak covers ebola virus disease in its entirety from its origins through major outbreaks in the past to the present day outbreak. it contains information on the west saharan response to ebola as well as highlights from the field in west africa from dr. qureshi and dr. chughtai, helping to solve the primary question of what’s next and aiding in formulating a path forward. with a growing awareness of the devastating effects of this viral disease and an influx of topical research, this book provides the information the global community of researchers, clinicians and students need to better inform their research and study of ebola virus disease. includes perspectives from the 2014-2015 outbreak from the field provides a detailed overview of the origins of ebola virus through present day discoveries written with an integrative approach, incorporating scientific research with insights from the field

Managing the global health response to epidemics Social science perspectives

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Author by : Mathilde Bourrier
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 294
Isbn : 1351263021
Identifier : 9781351263023
Release : 2019-02-12
Publisher by : Routledge
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now Managing The Global Health Response To Epidemics by Mathilde Bourrier and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. recent epidemics have prompted large-scale international interventions, aimed at mitigating the spread of disease in a globalized world. during a crisis, however, global health actions – including planning and organizing, communicating about risk, and cost–benefit evaluations – aren’t usually part of a single, integrated global response. arguing that an uncoordinated approach can be challenged by local conditions and expectations, generating a wide range of resistance and difficulties, this volume provides important insights for future outbreak management and global health governance. drawing on experiences with a(h1n1) and ebola virus disease, the book is divided into three parts looking at how responses to global health crises have developed, lessons learned from particular pandemics and the ethical implications of our management of them. individual chapters focus on, among other issues, financing, cost–benefit analysis, matrix management, risk communication and organizational strategies. taking a social science perspective, this valuable book outlines the current state of global health emergency responses and explores ways in which they can be improved. it is a useful read for academics and practitioners interested in global health, the sociology of health and illness, health economics and emergency management.

Ebola How a People's Science Helped End an Epidemic

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Author by : Paul Richards
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 192
Isbn : 1783608617
Identifier : 9781783608614
Release : 2016-09-15
Publisher by : Zed Books Ltd.
Category : Health & Fitness
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Description : Read Now Ebola by Paul Richards and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. from december 2013, the largest ebola outbreak in history swept across west africa, claiming thousands of lives in liberia, sierra leone and guinea. by the middle of 2014, the international community was gripped by hysteria. experts grimly predicted that millions would be infected within months, and a huge international control effort was mounted to contain the virus. yet paradoxically, by this point the disease was already going into decline in africa itself. so why did outside observers get it so wrong? paul richards draws on his extensive first-hand experience in sierra leone to argue that the international community’s panicky response failed to take account of local expertise and common sense. crucially, richards shows that the humanitarian response to the disease was most effective in those areas where it supported these initiatives and that it hampered recovery when it ignored or disregarded local knowledge.

The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials

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Author by : National Research Council
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 162
Isbn : 0309158141
Identifier : 9780309158145
Release : 2011-01-21
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now The Prevention And Treatment Of Missing Data In Clinical Trials by National Research Council and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. randomized clinical trials are the primary tool for evaluating new medical interventions. randomization provides for a fair comparison between treatment and control groups, balancing out, on average, distributions of known and unknown factors among the participants. unfortunately, these studies often lack a substantial percentage of data. this missing data reduces the benefit provided by the randomization and introduces potential biases in the comparison of the treatment groups. missing data can arise for a variety of reasons, including the inability or unwillingness of participants to meet appointments for evaluation. and in some studies, some or all of data collection ceases when participants discontinue study treatment. existing guidelines for the design and conduct of clinical trials, and the analysis of the resulting data, provide only limited advice on how to handle missing data. thus, approaches to the analysis of data with an appreciable amount of missing values tend to be ad hoc and variable. the prevention and treatment of missing data in clinical trials concludes that a more principled approach to design and analysis in the presence of missing data is both needed and possible. such an approach needs to focus on two critical elements: (1) careful design and conduct to limit the amount and impact of missing data and (2) analysis that makes full use of information on all randomized participants and is based on careful attention to the assumptions about the nature of the missing data underlying estimates of treatment effects. in addition to the highest priority recommendations, the book offers more detailed recommendations on the conduct of clinical trials and techniques for analysis of trial data.

Intentional Human Dosing Studies for EPA Regulatory Purposes Scientific and Ethical Issues

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Author by : National Research Council
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 226
Isbn : 9780309166416
Identifier : 0309166411
Release : 2004-06-04
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Science
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Description : Read Now Intentional Human Dosing Studies For Epa Regulatory Purposes by National Research Council and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. the epa commissioned the national academies to provide advice on the vexing question of whether and, if so, under what circumstances epa should accept and consider intentional human dosing studies conducted by companies or other sources outside the agency (so-called third parties) to gather evidence relating to the risks of a chemical or the conditions under which exposure to it could be judged safe. this report recommends that such studies be conducted and used for regulatory purposes only if all of several strict conditions are met, including the following: the study is necessary and scientifically valid, meaning that it addresses an important regulatory question that can’t be answered with animal studies or nondosing human studies; the societal benefits of the study outweigh any anticipated risks to participants. at no time, even when benefits beyond improved regulation exist, can a human dosing study be justified that is anticipated to cause lasting harm to study participants; and all recognized ethical standards and procedures for protecting the interests of study participants are observed. in addition, epa should establish a human studies review board (hsrb) to evaluate all human dosing studies â€" both at the beginning and upon completion of the experiments â€" if they are carried out with the intent of affecting the agency's policy-making.

Global Health Risk Framework Resilient and Sustainable Health Systems to Respond to Global Infectious Disease Outbreaks: Workshop Summary

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Author by : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 150
Isbn : 0309381142
Identifier : 9780309381147
Release : 2016-06-06
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now Global Health Risk Framework by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. since the 2014 ebola outbreak many public- and private-sector leaders have seen a need for improved management of global public health emergencies. the effects of the ebola epidemic go well beyond the three hardest-hit countries and beyond the health sector. education, child protection, commerce, transportation, and human rights have all suffered. the consequences and lethality of ebola have increased interest in coordinated global response to infectious threats, many of which could disrupt global health and commerce far more than the recent outbreak. in order to explore the potential for improving international management and response to outbreaks the national academy of medicine agreed to manage an international, independent, evidence-based, authoritative, multistakeholder expert commission. as part of this effort, the institute of medicine convened four workshops in summer of 2015 to inform the commission report. the presentations and discussions from the workshop on resilient and sustainable health systems to respond to global infectious disease outbreaks are summarized in this report.

Ebola, Culture and Politics: The Anthropology of an Emerging Disease

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Author by : Barry S. Hewlett
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 192
Isbn : 1111797315
Identifier : 9781111797317
Release : 2007-11-27
Publisher by : Cengage Learning
Category : Social Science
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Description : Read Now Ebola Culture And Politics The Anthropology Of An Emerging Disease by Barry S. Hewlett and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. in this case study, readers will embark on an improbable journey through the heart of africa to discover how indigenous people cope with the rapid-killing ebola virus. the hewletts are the first anthropologists ever invited by the world health organization to join a medical intervention team and assist in efforts to control an ebola outbreak. their account addresses political, structural, psychological, and cultural factors, along with conventional intervention protocols as problematic to achieving medical objectives. they find obvious historical and cultural answers to otherwise-puzzling questions about why village people often flee, refuse to cooperate, and sometimes physically attack members of intervention teams. perhaps surprisingly, readers will discover how some cultural practices of local people are helpful and should be incorporated into control procedures. the authors shed new light on a continuing debate about the motivation for human behavior by showing how local responses to epidemics are rooted both in culture and in human nature. well-supported recommendations emerge from a comparative analysis of central african cases and pandemics worldwide to suggest how the united states and other countries might use anthropologists and the insights of anthropologists to mount more effective public health campaigns, with particular attention to avian flu and bioterrorism. important notice: media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Global Health and the Future Role of the United States

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Author by : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 384
Isbn : 0309457637
Identifier : 9780309457637
Release : 2017-10-05
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now Global Health And The Future Role Of The United States by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. while much progress has been made on achieving the millenium development goals over the last decade, the number and complexity of global health challenges has persisted. growing forces for globalization have increased the interconnectedness of the world and our interdependency on other countries, economies, and cultures. monumental growth in international travel and trade have brought improved access to goods and services for many, but also carry ongoing and ever-present threats of zoonotic spillover and infectious disease outbreaks that threaten all. global health and the future role of the united states identifies global health priorities in light of current and emerging world threats. this report assesses the current global health landscape and how challenges, actions, and players have evolved over the last decade across a wide range of issues, and provides recommendations on how to increase responsiveness, coordination, and efficiency â€" both within the u.s. government and across the global health field.

Sharing Clinical Trial Data Maximizing Benefits, Minimizing Risk

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Author by : Committee on Strategies for Responsible Sharing of Clinical Trial Data
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 280
Isbn : 9780309316293
Identifier : 0309316294
Release : 2015-04-01
Publisher by : National Academy Press
Category : Medical
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Description : Read Now Sharing Clinical Trial Data by Committee on Strategies for Responsible Sharing of Clinical Trial Data and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. data sharing can accelerate new discoveries by avoiding duplicative trials, stimulating new ideas for research, and enabling the maximal scientific knowledge and benefits to be gained from the efforts of clinical trial participants and investigators. at the same time, sharing clinical trial data presents risks, burdens, and challenges. these include the need to protect the privacy and honor the consent of clinical trial participants; safeguard the legitimate economic interests of sponsors; and guard against invalid secondary analyses, which could undermine trust in clinical trials or otherwise harm public health. "sharing clinical trial data" presents activities and strategies for the responsible sharing of clinical trial data. with the goal of increasing scientific knowledge to lead to better therapies for patients, this book identifies guiding principles and makes recommendations to maximize the benefits and minimize risks. this report offers guidance on the types of clinical trial data available at different points in the process, the points in the process at which each type of data should be shared, methods for sharing data, what groups should have access to data, and future knowledge and infrastructure needs. responsible sharing of clinical trial data will allow other investigators to replicate published findings and carry out additional analyses, strengthen the evidence base for regulatory and clinical decisions, and increase the scientific knowledge gained from investments by the funders of clinical trials. the recommendations of "sharing clinical trial data" will be useful both now and well into the future as improved sharing of data leads to a stronger evidence base for treatment. this book will be of interest to stakeholders across the spectrum of research--from funders, to researchers, to journals, to physicians, and ultimately, to patients.