Modernizing Crime Statistics Report 2 New Systems For Measuring Crime

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Modernizing Crime Statistics: Report 2 New Systems for Measuring Crime

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Author by : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 280
Isbn : 030947261X
Identifier : 9780309472616
Release : 2018-05-23
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Law
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Description : Read Now Modernizing Crime Statistics Report 2 by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. to derive statistics about crime â€" to estimate its levels and trends, assess its costs to and impacts on society, and inform law enforcement approaches to prevent it - a conceptual framework for defining and thinking about crime is virtually a prerequisite. developing and maintaining such a framework is no easy task, because the mechanics of crime are ever evolving and shifting: tied to shifts and development in technology, society, and legislation. interest in understanding crime surged in the 1920s, which proved to be a pivotal decade for the collection of nationwide crime statistics. now established as a permanent agency, the census bureau commissioned the drafting of a manual for preparing crime statisticsâ€"intended for use by the police, corrections departments, and courts alike. the new manual sought to solve a perennial problem by suggesting a standard taxonomy of crime. shortly after the census bureau issued its manual, the international association of chiefs of police in convention adopted a resolution to create a committee on uniform crime records â€"to begin the process of describing what a national system of data on crimes known to the police might look like. report 1 performed a comprehensive reassessment of what is meant by crime in u.s. crime statistics and recommends a new classification of crime to organize measurement efforts. this second report examines methodological and implementation issues and presents a conceptual blueprint for modernizing crime statistics.

Modernizing Crime Statistics Report 1: Defining and Classifying Crime

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Author by : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 286
Isbn : 0309441129
Identifier : 9780309441124
Release : 2016-06-30
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Law
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Description : Read Now Modernizing Crime Statistics by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. to derive statistics about crime â€" to estimate its levels and trends, assess its costs to and impacts on society, and inform law enforcement approaches to prevent it â€" a conceptual framework for defining and thinking about crime is virtually a prerequisite. developing and maintaining such a framework is no easy task, because the mechanics of crime are ever evolving and shifting: tied to shifts and development in technology, society, and legislation. interest in understanding crime surged in the 1920s, which proved to be a pivotal decade for the collection of nationwide crime statistics. now established as a permanent agency, the census bureau commissioned the drafting of a manual for preparing crime statisticsâ€"intended for use by the police, corrections departments, and courts alike. the new manual sought to solve a perennial problem by suggesting a standard taxonomy of crime. shortly after the census bureau issued its manual, the international association of chiefs of police in convention adopted a resolution to create a committee on uniform crime records â€"to begin the process of describing what a national system of data on crimes known to the police might look like. the key distinction between the rigorous classification proposed in this report and the “classifications†that have come before in u.s. crime statistics is that it is intended to partition the entirety of behaviors that could be considered criminal offenses into mutually exclusive categories. modernizing crime statistics: report 1: defining and classifying crime assesses and makes recommendations for the development of a modern set of crime measures in the united states and the best means for obtaining them. this first report develops a new classification of crime by weighing various perspectives on how crime should be defined and organized with the needs and demands of the full array of crime data users and stakeholders.

Handbook on Crime and Deviance

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Author by : Marvin D. Krohn
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 639
Isbn : 303020779X
Identifier : 9783030207793
Release : 2019-08-28
Publisher by : Springer Nature
Category : Social Science
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Description : Read Now Handbook On Crime And Deviance by Marvin D. Krohn and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this 2nd edition of the handbook provides an interdisciplinary coverage of new understandings of the most important developments in the sociology of crime and deviance that is current and emerging for research, methodology, practice, and theory in criminology. it fosters research to take the fields of criminology and criminal justice in new directions. unlike any other handbook, it includes chapters on cutting-edge quantitative data and analytical techniques that are shaping the future of empirical research and expanding theoretical explanations of crime and deviance. it further devotes a section to the most current and innovative methodological issues. chapters are updated providing an inclusive discussion of the current research and the theoretical and empirical future of crime and deviance. this handbook is of great interest for advanced undergraduates, graduates students, researchers and scholars in criminology, criminal justice, sociology and related fields, such as social welfare, economics, and psychology.

Modernizing Crime Statistics Report 1: Defining and Classifying Crime

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Author by : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 286
Isbn : 0309441099
Identifier : 9780309441094
Release : 2016-07-30
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Law
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Description : Read Now Modernizing Crime Statistics by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. to derive statistics about crime â€" to estimate its levels and trends, assess its costs to and impacts on society, and inform law enforcement approaches to prevent it â€" a conceptual framework for defining and thinking about crime is virtually a prerequisite. developing and maintaining such a framework is no easy task, because the mechanics of crime are ever evolving and shifting: tied to shifts and development in technology, society, and legislation. interest in understanding crime surged in the 1920s, which proved to be a pivotal decade for the collection of nationwide crime statistics. now established as a permanent agency, the census bureau commissioned the drafting of a manual for preparing crime statisticsâ€"intended for use by the police, corrections departments, and courts alike. the new manual sought to solve a perennial problem by suggesting a standard taxonomy of crime. shortly after the census bureau issued its manual, the international association of chiefs of police in convention adopted a resolution to create a committee on uniform crime records â€"to begin the process of describing what a national system of data on crimes known to the police might look like. the key distinction between the rigorous classification proposed in this report and the “classifications†that have come before in u.s. crime statistics is that it is intended to partition the entirety of behaviors that could be considered criminal offenses into mutually exclusive categories. modernizing crime statistics: report 1: defining and classifying crime assesses and makes recommendations for the development of a modern set of crime measures in the united states and the best means for obtaining them. this first report develops a new classification of crime by weighing various perspectives on how crime should be defined and organized with the needs and demands of the full array of crime data users and stakeholders.

Understanding Crime Trends Workshop Report

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Author by : National Research Council
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 258
Isbn : 0309125863
Identifier : 9780309125864
Release : 2009-02-05
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Law
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Description : Read Now Understanding Crime Trends by National Research Council and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. changes over time in the levels and patterns of crime have significant consequences that affect not only the criminal justice system but also other critical policy sectors. yet compared with such areas as health status, housing, and employment, the nation lacks timely information and comprehensive research on crime trends. descriptive information and explanatory research on crime trends across the nation that are not only accurate, but also timely, are pressing needs in the nation's crime-control efforts. in april 2007, the national research council held a two-day workshop to address key substantive and methodological issues underlying the study of crime trends and to lay the groundwork for a proposed multiyear nrc panel study of these issues. six papers were commissioned from leading researchers and discussed at the workshop by experts in sociology, criminology, law, economics, and statistics. the authors revised their papers based on the discussants' comments, and the papers were then reviewed again externally. the six final workshop papers are the basis of this volume, which represents some of the most serious thinking and research on crime trends currently available.

Proactive Policing Effects on Crime and Communities

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Author by : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 408
Isbn : 0309467136
Identifier : 9780309467131
Release : 2018-03-23
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Law
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Description : Read Now Proactive Policing by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the united states. it developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism regarding the effectiveness of standard approaches to policing. in response, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, innovative police practices and policies that took a more proactive approach began to develop. this report uses the term “proactive policing†to refer to all policing strategies that have as one of their goals the prevention or reduction of crime and disorder and that are not reactive in terms of focusing primarily on uncovering ongoing crime or on investigating or responding to crimes once they have occurred. proactive policing is distinguished from the everyday decisions of police officers to be proactive in specific situations and instead refers to a strategic decision by police agencies to use proactive police responses in a programmatic way to reduce crime. today, proactive policing strategies are used widely in the united states. they are not isolated programs used by a select group of agencies but rather a set of ideas that have spread across the landscape of policing. proactive policing reviews the evidence and discusses the data and methodological gaps on: (1) the effects of different forms of proactive policing on crime; (2) whether they are applied in a discriminatory manner; (3) whether they are being used in a legal fashion; and (4) community reaction. this report offers a comprehensive evaluation of proactive policing that includes not only its crime prevention impacts but also its broader implications for justice and u.s. communities.

Measurement Problems in Criminal Justice Research Workshop Summary

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Author by : National Research Council
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 111
Isbn : 0309086353
Identifier : 9780309086356
Release : 2003-01-18
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Law
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Description : Read Now Measurement Problems In Criminal Justice Research by National Research Council and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. most major crime in this country emanates from two major data sources. the fbi’s uniform crime reports has collected information on crimes known to the police and arrests from local and state jurisdictions throughout the country. the national crime victimization survey, a general population survey designed to cover the extent, nature, and consequences of criminal victimization, has been conducted annually since the early1970s. this workshop was designed to consider similarities and differences in the methodological problems encountered by the survey and criminal justice research communities and what might be the best focus for the research community. in addition to comparing and contrasting the methodological issues associated with self-report surveys and official records, the workshop explored methods for obtaining accurate self-reports on sensitive questions about crime events, estimating crime and victimization in rural counties and townships and developing unbiased prevalence and incidence rates for rate events among population subgroups.

Crime, Shame and Reintegration

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Author by : John Braithwaite
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 226
Isbn : 9780521356688
Identifier : 0521356687
Release : 1999
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Category : Biography & Autobiography
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Description : Read Now Crime Shame And Reintegration by John Braithwaite and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this book, a contribution to general criminological theory, suggests that the key to why some societies have higher crime rates than others lies in the way different cultures go about the social process of shaming wrongdoers. shaming can be counterproductive, making crime problems worse. but when shaming is done within a cultural context of respect for the offender, it can be extraordinarily powerful, efficient, and just form of social control.

Exploring Criminal Justice

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Author by : Professor Emeritus University of Colorado at Boulder Robert M Regoli
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 549
Isbn : 0763762326
Identifier : 9780763762322
Release : 2008-02-01
Publisher by : Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Category : True Crime
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Description : Read Now Exploring Criminal Justice by Professor Emeritus University of Colorado at Boulder Robert M Regoli and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. hailed as the most engaging and accessible introductory text available, exploring criminal justice provides a clear, complete, and credible introduction to the u.s. criminal justice system. using an easy-to-follow, attention-grabbing writing style, this text explains the overarching processes and purposes of the criminal justice system. the functions of each component police, courts, corrections and the relationships between them are described in detail while rich and captivating pedagogy encourages students to think about how each component affects their daily lives. this thoroughly up-to-date text provides contemporary data, case studies, and references for all topics. exploring criminal justice devotes an entire chapter to the emerging crimes of terrorism and cybercrime and the role these controversial topics play in the modern criminal justice system. special attention is also given to juvenile offenders and issues relating to women and minorities. in addition, this text provides thorough integration of criminological theory and policy as it presents both historical context and current features of the u.s. criminal justice system."

Principles and Practices for a Federal Statistical Agency Fourth Edition

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Author by : National Research Council
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 135
Isbn : 9780309164320
Identifier : 030916432X
Release : 2009-03-13
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Social Science
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Description : Read Now Principles And Practices For A Federal Statistical Agency by National Research Council and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. since 1992, the committee on national statistics (cnstat) has produced a book on principles and practices for a federal statistical agency, updating the document every 4 years to provide a current edition to newly appointed cabinet secretaries at the beginning of each presidential administration. this fourth edition presents and comments on four basic principles that statistical agencies must embody in order to carry out their mission fully: (1) they must produce objective data that are relevant to policy issues, (2) they must achieve and maintain credibility among data users, (3) they must achieve and maintain trust among data providers, and (4) they must achieve and maintain a strong position of independence from the appearance and reality of political control. the book also discusses 11 important practices that are means for statistical agencies to live up to the four principles. these practices include a commitment to quality and professional practice and an active program of methodological and substantive research. this fourth edition adds the principle that statistical agencies must operate from a strong position of independence and the practice that agencies must have ongoing internal and external evaluations of their programs.

The Growth of Incarceration in the United States Exploring Causes and Consequences

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Author by : Committee on Causes and Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 800
Isbn : 9780309298018
Identifier : 0309298016
Release : 2014-12-31
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Law
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Description : Read Now The Growth Of Incarceration In The United States by Committee on Causes and Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. after decades of stability from the 1920s to the early 1970s, the rate of imprisonment in the united states has increased fivefold during the last four decades. the u.s. penal population of 2.2 million adults is by far the largest in the world. just under one-quarter of the world's prisoners are held in american prisons. the u.s. rate of incarceration, with nearly 1 out of every 100 adults in prison or jail, is 5 to 10 times higher than the rates in western europe and other democracies. the u.s. prison population is largely drawn from the most disadvantaged part of the nation's population: mostly men under age 40, disproportionately minority, and poorly educated. prisoners often carry additional deficits of drug and alcohol addictions, mental and physical illnesses, and lack of work preparation or experience. the growth of incarceration in the united states during four decades has prompted numerous critiques and a growing body of scientific knowledge about what prompted the rise and what its consequences have been for the people imprisoned, their families and communities, and for u.s. society. the growth of incarceration in the united states examines research and analysis of the dramatic rise of incarceration rates and its affects. this study makes the case that the united states has gone far past the point where the numbers of people in prison can be justified by social benefits and has reached a level where these high rates of incarceration themselves constitute a source of injustice and social harm. the growth of incarceration in the united states examines policy changes that created an increasingly punitive political climate and offers specific policy advice in sentencing policy, prison policy, and social policy. the report also identifies important research questions that must be answered to provide a firmer basis for policy. this report is a call for change in the way society views criminals, punishment, and prison. this landmark study assesses the evidence and its implications for public policy to inform an extensive and thoughtful public debate about and reconsideration of policies.

Parole, Desistance from Crime, and Community Integration

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Author by : National Research Council
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 114
Isbn : 0309110815
Identifier : 9780309110815
Release : 2007-12-26
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Law
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Description : Read Now Parole Desistance From Crime And Community Integration by National Research Council and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. every day, about 1,600 people are released from prisons in the united states. of these 600,000 new releasees every year, about 480,000 are subject to parole or some other kind of postrelease supervision. prison releasees represent a challenge, both to themselves and to the communities to which they return. will the releasees see parole as an opportunity to be reintegrated into society, with jobs and homes and supportive families and friends? or will they commit new crimes or violate the terms of their parole contracts? if so, will they be returned to prison or placed under more stringent community supervision? will the communities to which they return see them as people to be reintegrated or people to be avoided? and, the institution of parole itself is challenged with three different functions: to facilitate reintegration for parolees who are ready for rehabilitation; to deter crime; and to apprehend those parolees who commit new crimes and return them to prison. in recent decades, policy makers, researchers, and program administrators have focused almost exclusively on "recidivism," which is essentially the failure of releasees to refrain from crime or stay out of prison. in contrast, for this study the national institute of justice (nij) of the u.s. department of justice asked the national research council to focus on "desistance," which broadly covers continued absence of criminal activity and requires reintegration into society. specifically, the committee was asked (1) to consider the current state of parole practices, new and emerging models of community supervision, and what is necessary for successful reentry and (2) to provide a research agenda on the effects of community supervision on desistance from criminal activity, adherence to conditions of parole, and successful reentry into the community. to carry out its charge, the committee organized and held a workshop focused on traditional and new models of community supervision, the empirical underpinnings of such models, and the infrastructure necessary to support successful reentry. parole, desistance from crime, and community integration also reviews the literature on desistance from crime, community supervision, and the evaluation research on selected types of intervention.