Neighbourhood Effects Or Neighbourhood Based Problems

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Neighbourhood Effects or Neighbourhood Based Problems? A Policy Context

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Author by : David Manley, Maarten van Ham, Nick Bailey, Ludi Simpson, Duncan Maclennan
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 296
Isbn : 9400766955
Identifier : 9789400766952
Release : 2013-06-26
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 8504578
Total Read : 3011934
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Description : Read Now Neighbourhood Effects Or Neighbourhood Based Problems? by David Manley, Maarten van Ham, Nick Bailey, Ludi Simpson, Duncan Maclennan and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this edited volume critically examines the link between area based policies, neighbourhood based problems, and neighbourhood effects: the idea that living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods has a negative effect on residents’ life chances over and above the effect of their individual characteristics. over the last few decades, western governments have persistently pursued area based policies to fight such effects, despite a lack of evidence that they exist, or that these policies make a difference. the first part of this book presents case studies of perceived neighbourhood based problems in the domains of crime; health; educational outcomes; and employment. the second part of the book presents an international overview of the policies that different governments have implemented in response to these neighbourhood based problems, and discusses the theoretical and conceptual processes behind place based policy making. case studies are drawn from a diverse range of countries including the united kingdom, the netherlands, australia, canada, and the usa.

Neighbourhood Effects Research: New Perspectives

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Author by : Maarten van Ham, David Manley, Nick Bailey, Ludi Simpson, Duncan Maclennan
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 300
Isbn : 9789400723092
Identifier : 9400723091
Release : 2011-11-22
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 2931793
Total Read : 8442014
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Description : Read Now Neighbourhood Effects Research New Perspectives by Maarten van Ham, David Manley, Nick Bailey, Ludi Simpson, Duncan Maclennan and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. over the last 25 years a vast body of literature has been published on neighbourhood effects: the idea that living in more deprived neighbourhoods has a negative effect on residents’ life chances over and above the effect of their individual characteristics. the volume of work not only reflects academic and policy interest in this topic, but also the fact that we are still no closer to answering the question of how important neighbourhood effects actually are. there is little doubt that these effects exist, but we do not know enough about the causal mechanisms which produce them, their relative importance in shaping individual’s life chances, the circumstances or conditions under which they are most important, or the most effective policy responses. collectively, the chapters in this book offer new perspectives on these questions, and refocus the academic debate on neighbourhood effects. the book enriches the neighbourhood effects literature with insights from a wide range of disciplines and countries.

Understanding Neighbourhood Dynamics New Insights for Neighbourhood Effects Research

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Author by : Maarten van Ham, David Manley, Nick Bailey, Ludi Simpson, Duncan Maclennan
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 284
Isbn : 9400748531
Identifier : 9789400748538
Release : 2012-09-27
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 7543315
Total Read : 2687749
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Description : Read Now Understanding Neighbourhood Dynamics by Maarten van Ham, David Manley, Nick Bailey, Ludi Simpson, Duncan Maclennan and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this rare interdisciplinary combination of research into neighbourhood dynamics and effects attempts to unravel the complex relationship between disadvantaged neighbourhoods and the life outcomes of the residents who live therein. it seeks to overcome the notorious difficulties of establishing an empirical causal relationship between living in a disadvantaged area and the poorer health and well-being often found in such places. there remains a widespread belief in neighbourhood effects: that living in a poorer area can adversely affect residents’ life chances. these chapters caution that neighbourhood effects cannot be fully understood without a profound understanding of the changes to, and selective mobility into and out of, these areas. featuring fresh research findings from a number of countries and data sources, including from the uk, australia, sweden and the usa, this book offers fresh perspectives on neighbourhood choice and dynamics, as well as new material for social scientists, geographers and policy makers alike. it enriches neighbourhood effects research with insights from the closely related, but currently largely separate, literature on neighbourhood dynamics.

Building the Inclusive City Theory and Practice for Confronting Urban Segregation

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Author by : Nilson Ariel Espino
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 144
Isbn : 1317601483
Identifier : 9781317601487
Release : 2015-03-24
Publisher by : Routledge
Category : Architecture
Total Download : 7528657
Total Read : 4555264
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Description : Read Now Building The Inclusive City by Nilson Ariel Espino and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. urban segregation is one of the main challenges facing urban development around the globe. the usual outcome of many urban development patterns is an unequal social geography, with the urban poor living in large clusters that are remote, isolated, dangerous or unhealthy. the result is inequality in a number of dimensions of urban life, from deficient urban access, services or infrastructure to social isolation, neighbourhood violence, and lack of economic opportunity. this book brings together debates on ethnic and economic segregation, combining theory and practical solutions to create a guide for those trying to understand and address urban segregation in any part of the world, and integrate ameliorating policies to contemporary urban development agendas.

Great American City Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect

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Author by : Robert J. Sampson
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 534
Isbn : 0226734560
Identifier : 9780226734569
Release : 2012-02-15
Publisher by : University of Chicago Press
Category : Political Science
Total Download : 176883
Total Read : 9159129
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Description : Read Now Great American City by Robert J. Sampson and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. to demonstrate the powerfully enduring effect of place, this text reviews a decade of research in chicago, to demonstrate how neighborhoods influence social phenomena, including crime, health, civic engagement & altruism.

Neighbourhood Effects on Firm Success and Strategy

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Author by : Bart Sleutjes
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 210
Isbn : 9085550734
Identifier : 9789085550730
Release : 2012-09-06
Publisher by : Amsterdam University Press
Category : Neighborhoods
Total Download : 3042726
Total Read : 7705581
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Description : Read Now Neighbourhood Effects On Firm Success And Strategy by Bart Sleutjes and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. as a result of economic transitions and several societal developments over the past 50 years, residential neighbourhoods have developed from being places where people predominantly live into places where people also work. a growing number of small- and medium-sized firms are located in residential neighbourhoods, many of which are home-based. triggered by relatively high levels of turbulence in residential neighbourhoods and inter-locality variation in firm survival, firm growth and firm relocation, this study concerned whether and how neighbourhood characteristics influence the success of local firms and the strategic options of their entrepreneurs. the research demonstrates that some ‘neighbourhood effects’ on firm success and strategy do exist, especially for the growing group of solo entrepreneurs and firms in locally-oriented sectors. in particular the social context in which entrepreneurs are embedded matters, as cohesive neighbourhoods trigger both firm growth and entrepreneurial investments. furthermore, the accumulation of liveability-related problems in disadvantaged neighbourhoods seems to contribute to an unfavourable business climate.

Mixed Communities Gentrification by Stealth?

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Author by : Gary Bridge, Tim Butler, Loretta Lees
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 372
Isbn : 1847424937
Identifier : 9781847424938
Release : 2012
Publisher by : Policy Press
Category : Political Science
Total Download : 2350388
Total Read : 1749797
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Description : Read Now Mixed Communities by Gary Bridge, Tim Butler, Loretta Lees and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. "encouraging neighbourhood social mix has been a major goal of urban policy and planning in a number of different countries. this book draws together a range of case studies by international experts to assess the impacts of social mix policies and the degree to which they might represent gentrification by stealth. the contributions consider the range of social mix initiatives in different countries across the globe and their relationship to wider social, economic and urban change. the book combines understandings of social mix from the perspectives of researchers, policy makers and planners and the residents of the communities themselves. mixed communities also draws out more general lessons from these international comparisons - theoretically, empirically and for urban policy. it will be highly relevant for urban researchers and students, policy makers and practitioners alike."--publisher's website.

Neighborhoods and Health

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Author by : Ichirō Kawachi, Lisa F. Berkman
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 352
Isbn : 0195138384
Identifier : 9780195138382
Release : 2003
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
Category : Medical
Total Download : 1704648
Total Read : 1124170
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Description : Read Now Neighborhoods And Health by Ichirō Kawachi, Lisa F. Berkman and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this comprehensive textbook lays out for the first time the methodological approaches to conducting neighbourhood research, including multi-level and contextual analysis, geocoding and the use of small area-based measures of deprivation, as well as the evolving science of 'ecometrics'. substantive chapters present the case for the relevance of neighbourhood effects on health outcomes throughout the life cycle, from infant mortality and low birthweight, to childhood asthma, adult infectious diseases, and disability in old age. the approaches covered in the book range from testing the linkages between community-level variables, such as social capital and residential segregation, and population health to designing and implementing community interventions and policies to improve the health of the public.

Quantifying Neighbourhood Effects Frontiers and perspectives

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Author by : Jorg Blasius, Jurgen Friedrichs, George Galster
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 232
Isbn : 131796800X
Identifier : 9781317968009
Release : 2013-10-31
Publisher by : Routledge
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 4900609
Total Read : 3002335
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Description : Read Now Quantifying Neighbourhood Effects by Jorg Blasius, Jurgen Friedrichs, George Galster and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. many policies in several western european countries and the u.s. aim to counter spatial concentrations of deprivation and create more socio-economically mixed residential areas. such policies are founded on the belief that neighbourhoods have a strong and independent effect upon the well-being and life-chances of individuals. the adequacy of the evidence base to support this position has been the subject of spirited debate on both sides of the atlantic. the primary purpose of this book is to contribute to this policy-relevant discussion by presenting new scholarship from many countries that rigorously quantifies various sorts of neighbourhood effects through the use of cutting-edge social scientific techniques. the secondary purpose of this book is to introduce these techniques to a wider array of housing and planning researchers and to show how a variety of disciplines have offered insightful, synergistic perspectives. research on neighbourhood effects has over the last 15 years led to a body of knowledge extending far beyond the sociological urban research where it originated. the problem of quantifying neighbourhood effects and the use of associated methodologies (like multi-level analysis, instrumental variables) has attracted scholars from criminology, sociology, social geography, economics and health science, and thus serves as a critical locus for interdisciplinary scholarship. this book was previously published as a special issue of housing studies.

Puzzling Neighbourhood Effects Spatial Selection, Ethnic Concentration and Neighbourhood Impacts

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Author by : Wenda Doff
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 174
Isbn : 1607506483
Identifier : 9781607506485
Release : 2010-01-01
Publisher by : IOS Press
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 6565478
Total Read : 9788137
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Description : Read Now Puzzling Neighbourhood Effects by Wenda Doff and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. wenda doff is an urban sociologist. her research focuses on the interrelationships between housing choice, residential sorting, segregation and neighbourhood effects. her phd thesis puzzling neighbourhood effects contributes to a more holistic view on segregation and its potential significance for immigrants' socio-economic outcomes. at otb she has been involved in many projects, among which studies on residential segregation, housing choice and housing allocation, neighbourhood change and the social implications of urban restructuring.

From Neurons to Neighborhoods The Science of Early Childhood Development

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Author by : Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Institute of Medicine, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 612
Isbn : 0309069882
Identifier : 9780309069885
Release : 2000-11-13
Publisher by : National Academies Press
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 5399475
Total Read : 7695113
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Description : Read Now From Neurons To Neighborhoods by Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Institute of Medicine, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. how we raise young children is one of today's most highly personalized and sharply politicized issues, in part because each of us can claim some level of "expertise." the debate has intensified as discoveries about our development-in the womb and in the first months and years-have reached the popular media. how can we use our burgeoning knowledge to assure the well-being of all young children, for their own sake as well as for the sake of our nation? drawing from new findings, this book presents important conclusions about nature-versus-nurture, the impact of being born into a working family, the effect of politics on programs for children, the costs and benefits of intervention, and other issues. the committee issues a series of challenges to decision makers regarding the quality of child care, issues of racial and ethnic diversity, the integration of children's cognitive and emotional development, and more. authoritative yet accessible, from neurons to neighborhoods presents the evidence about "brain wiring" and how kids learn to speak, think, and regulate their behavior. it examines the effect of the climate-family, child care, community-within which the child grows.

Stuck in Place Urban Neighborhoods and the End of Progress toward Racial Equality

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Author by : Patrick Sharkey
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 304
Isbn : 0226924262
Identifier : 9780226924267
Release : 2013-05-15
Publisher by : University of Chicago Press
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 1758318
Total Read : 8484031
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Description : Read Now Stuck In Place by Patrick Sharkey and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. in the 1960s, many believed that the civil rights movement’s successes would foster a new era of racial equality in america. four decades later, the degree of racial inequality has barely changed. to understand what went wrong, patrick sharkey argues that we have to understand what has happened to african american communities over the last several decades. in stuck in place, sharkey describes how political decisions and social policies have led to severe disinvestment from black neighborhoods, persistent segregation, declining economic opportunities, and a growing link between african american communities and the criminal justice system. as a result, neighborhood inequality that existed in the 1970s has been passed down to the current generation of african americans. some of the most persistent forms of racial inequality, such as gaps in income and test scores, can only be explained by considering the neighborhoods in which black and white families have lived over multiple generations. this multigenerational nature of neighborhood inequality also means that a new kind of urban policy is necessary for our nation’s cities. sharkey argues for urban policies that have the potential to create transformative and sustained changes in urban communities and the families that live within them, and he outlines a durable urban policy agenda to move in that direction.

Unequal Networks Spatial Segregation, Relationships and Inequality in the City

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Author by : G. Van Eijk
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 352
Isbn : 160750555X
Identifier : 9781607505556
Release : 2010-01-01
Publisher by : Gwen van Eijk
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 6659335
Total Read : 5629137
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Description : Read Now Unequal Networks by G. Van Eijk and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. delft centre for sustainable urban areas carries out research in the field of the built environment and is one of the multidisciplinary research centres at tu delft. the delft research centres bundle tu delft's excellent research and provide integrated solutions for today's and tomorrow's problems in society. otb research institute for housing, urban and mobility studies and the faculties of architecture, technology, policy and management and civil engineering and geosciences participate in this delft research centre. does the neighbourhood in which people live matter for the resourcefulness of their personal network and thus for their opportunities in life? do residents of a multi-ethnic `problem' area maintain fewer relationships with fellow-residents compared to residents of a homogeneous problem-free neighbourhood? and do `diversity-seekers' who choose to live in a mixed neighbourhood translate their liking for diversity into more mixed networks and more bridging ties? this book brings together key insights from urban studies and network studies in order to understand whether and how spatial segregation matters for personal networks and inequality. by approaching these questions through different urban sociological perspectives, the book engages with current debates on poverty concentration as well as ethnic diversity, gentrification and social capital. the study is based on detailed quantitative and qualitative data on the personal networks of people living in three differently composed neighbourhoods in rotterdam, the second largest city in the netherlands.

Living Together in Multi-ethnic Neighbourhoods The Meaning of Public Spaces for Issues of Social Integration

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Author by : Karin Peters
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 251
Isbn : 9086861903
Identifier : 9789086861903
Release : 2011
Publisher by : Wageningen Academic Pub
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 1892603
Total Read : 8645394
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Description : Read Now Living Together In Multi Ethnic Neighbourhoods by Karin Peters and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. in western societies, such as the netherlands, people with different ethnic backgrounds live together in urban areas. this book examines daily life in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods and the meaning of public spaces for social integration. through observations and interviews in two dutch cities (nijmegen and utrecht) insight is gained into the use and perception of public spaces. positive experiences in public spaces contribute to feeling at home in a multi-ethnic neighbourhood. not only intense and lasting contacts, but also fleeting interactions contribute to feeling at home.experience with diversity contributes to a realistic view of multiculturalism, a view that is based on everyday experiences, with all its positive and negative implications. this, however, does not mean that residents do not use stereotypes or categorizations. however, there is a major difference between the public discourse - which focuses on differences and problems - and everyday encounters, which are perceived as a way to experience and enjoy diversity.recommendations are that politicians should look at the everyday realities in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods when discussing issues related to multi-ethnic societies. repeatedly stressing the dichotomy between native and non-native dutch citizens and focusing on problems, has a negative effect on the everyday lives of people because it produces and reproduces stereotyped images. integration is not only about non-native dutch residents adapting themselves to dutch society: it is also about the extent to which people from various backgrounds live together and feel at home in their neighbourhood.

Safety, Societal Problems and Citizens' Perceptions New Empirical Data, Theories and Analyses

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Author by : Marc Cools, Marleen Easton, Brice De Ruyver, Lieven Pauwels, Paul Ponsaers
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 311
Isbn : 904660327X
Identifier : 9789046603277
Release : 2010
Publisher by : Maklu
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 3253262
Total Read : 9112782
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Description : Read Now Safety Societal Problems And Citizens Perceptions by Marc Cools, Marleen Easton, Brice De Ruyver, Lieven Pauwels, Paul Ponsaers and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. in nowadays' globalised society an international exchange of ideas and views is indispensable within the field of social sciences, including criminology and criminal justice studies. the research group governance of security want to foster contemporary international discourses on issues of crime and crime control. therefore, gofs started a research paper series, combining theoretical and empirical articles on issues reflecting the research activities of gofs. this research group is collaboration between ghent university and ghent university college in belgium. gofs is concentrating its research around the study of administrative and judicial policy that has been developed with respect to new issues of crime and insecurity. volume 3 provides new empirical data, theories and analyses on safety, societal problems and citizens' perceptions. some articles in volume 3 focus especially on issues of conceptualisation and measurement of key constructs in the study of security in its broadest meaning (from fear of crime to corruption) some articles present tests of theoretical models derived from theoretical criminology, and finally some articles focus on different institutional reactions towards crime and drug-related problems (e.g. policing, the conflict of interests between private companies and authorities and restorative justice).

Cracks in the Pavement Social Change and Resilience in Poor Neighborhoods

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Author by : Martin Sanchez-Jankowski
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 504
Isbn : 0520942450
Identifier : 9780520942455
Release : 2008-09-02
Publisher by : Univ of California Press
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 8256337
Total Read : 6205427
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Description : Read Now Cracks In The Pavement by Martin Sanchez-Jankowski and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. woven throughout with rich details of everyday life, this original, on-the-ground study of poor neighborhoods challenges much prevailing wisdom about urban poverty, shedding new light on the people, institutions, and culture in these communities. over the course of nearly a decade, martín sánchez-jankowski immersed himself in life in neighborhoods in new york and los angeles to investigate how social change and social preservation transpire among the urban poor. looking at five community mainstays—the housing project, the small grocery store, the barbershop and the beauty salon, the gang, and the local high school—he discovered how these institutions provide a sense of order, continuity, and stability in places often thought to be chaotic, disorganized, and disheartened. his provocative and ground-breaking study provides new data on urban poverty and also advances a new theory of how poor neighborhoods function, illuminating the creativity and resilience that characterize the lives of those who experience the hardships associated with economic deprivation.