Socio Economic Segregation In European Capital Cities

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Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities East Meets West

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Author by : Tiit Tammaru, Maarten van Ham, Szymon Marcińczak, Sako Musterd
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 390
Isbn : 1317637488
Identifier : 9781317637486
Release : 2015-07-24
Publisher by : Routledge
Category : Business & Economics
Total Download : 3587013
Total Read : 2048724
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Description : Read Now Socio Economic Segregation In European Capital Cities by Tiit Tammaru, Maarten van Ham, Szymon Marcińczak, Sako Musterd and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. growing inequalities in europe are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of european cities. while the levels of socio-economic segregation in european cities are still modest compared to some parts of the world, the poor are increasingly concentrating spatially within capital cities across europe. an overlooked area of research, this book offers a systematic and representative account of the spatial dimension of rising inequalities in europe. this book provides rigorous comparative evidence on socio-economic segregation from 13 european cities. cities include amsterdam, athens, budapest, london, milan, madrid, oslo, prague, riga, stockholm, tallinn, vienna and vilnius. comparing 2001 and 2011, this multi-factor approach links segregation to four underlying universal structural factors: social inequalities, global city status, welfare regimes and housing systems. hypothetical segregation levels derived from those factors are compared to actual segregation levels in all cities. each chapter provides an in-depth and context sensitive discussion of the unique features shaping inequalities and segregation in the case study cities. the main conclusion of the book is that the spatial gap between the poor and the rich is widening in capital cities across europe, which threatens to harm the social stability of european cities. this book will be a key reference on increasing segregation and will provide valuable insights to students, researchers and policy makers who are interested in the spatial dimension of social inequality in european cities. a pdf version of the introduction and conclusion are available open access at www.tandfebooks.com. it has been made available under a creative commons attribution-non commercial-no derivatives 3.0 license.

Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities East Meets West

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Author by : Tiit Tammaru, Maarten van Ham, Sako Musterd, Szymon Marciczak, Szymon Marcinczak
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 414
Isbn : 9781138794931
Identifier : 1138794937
Release : 2015-08-17
Publisher by :
Category : Business & Economics
Total Download : 5749305
Total Read : 5365176
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Description : Read Now Socio Economic Segregation In European Capital Cities by Tiit Tammaru, Maarten van Ham, Sako Musterd, Szymon Marciczak, Szymon Marcinczak and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. growing inequalities in europe are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of european cities. while the levels of socio-economic segregation in european cities are still modest compared to some parts of the world, the poor are increasingly concentrating spatially within capital cities across europe. an overlooked area of research, this book offers a systematic and representative account of the spatial dimension of rising inequalities in europe. this book provides rigorous comparative evidence on socio-economic segregation from 13 european cities. cities include amsterdam, athens, budapest, london, milan, madrid, oslo, prague, riga, stockholm, tallinn, vienna and vilnius. comparing 2001 and 2011, this multi-factor approach links segregation to four underlying universal structural factors: social inequalities, global city status, welfare regimes and housing systems. hypothetical segregation levels derived from those factors are compared to actual segregation levels in all cities. each chapter provides an in-depth and context sensitive discussion of the unique features shaping inequalities and segregation in the case study cities. the main conclusion of the book is that the spatial gap between the poor and the rich is widening in capital cities across europe, which threatens to harm the social stability of european cities. this book will be a key reference on increasing segregation and will provide valuable insights to students, researchers and policy makers who are interested in the spatial dimension of social inequality in european cities. a pdf version of the introduction and conclusion are available open access at www.tandfebooks.com. it has been made available under a creative commons attribution-non commercial-no derivatives 3.0 license.

Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities East Meets West

Download Socio Economic Segregation In European Capital Cities Book or Ebook File with PDF Epub Audio and Full format File

Author by : Tiit Tammaru, Maarten van Ham, Szymon Marcińczak, Sako Musterd
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 414
Isbn : 131763747X
Identifier : 9781317637479
Release : 2015-07-24
Publisher by : Routledge
Category : Business & Economics
Total Download : 5613702
Total Read : 9349675
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Description : Read Now Socio Economic Segregation In European Capital Cities by Tiit Tammaru, Maarten van Ham, Szymon Marcińczak, Sako Musterd and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. growing inequalities in europe are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of european cities. while the levels of socio-economic segregation in european cities are still modest compared to some parts of the world, the poor are increasingly concentrating spatially within capital cities across europe. an overlooked area of research, this book offers a systematic and representative account of the spatial dimension of rising inequalities in europe. this book provides rigorous comparative evidence on socio-economic segregation from 13 european cities. cities include amsterdam, athens, budapest, london, milan, madrid, oslo, prague, riga, stockholm, tallinn, vienna and vilnius. comparing 2001 and 2011, this multi-factor approach links segregation to four underlying universal structural factors: social inequalities, global city status, welfare regimes and housing systems. hypothetical segregation levels derived from those factors are compared to actual segregation levels in all cities. each chapter provides an in-depth and context sensitive discussion of the unique features shaping inequalities and segregation in the case study cities. the main conclusion of the book is that the spatial gap between the poor and the rich is widening in capital cities across europe, which threatens to harm the social stability of european cities. this book will be a key reference on increasing segregation and will provide valuable insights to students, researchers and policy makers who are interested in the spatial dimension of social inequality in european cities. a pdf version of the introduction and conclusion are available open access at www.tandfebooks.com. it has been made available under a creative commons attribution-non commercial-no derivatives 3.0 license.

Housing Estates in Europe Poverty, Ethnic Segregation and Policy Challenges

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Author by : Daniel Baldwin Hess, Tiit Tammaru, Maarten van Ham
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 424
Isbn : 3319928139
Identifier : 9783319928135
Release : 2018-08-14
Publisher by : Springer
Category : Science
Total Download : 7602099
Total Read : 8428795
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Description : Read Now Housing Estates In Europe by Daniel Baldwin Hess, Tiit Tammaru, Maarten van Ham and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this open access book explores the formation and socio-spatial trajectories of large housing estates in europe. are these estates clustered or scattered? which social groups originally had access to residential space in housing estates? what is the size, scale and geography of housing estates, their architectural and built environment composition, services and neighbourhood amenities, and metropolitan connectivity? how do housing estates contribute to the urban mosaic of neighborhoods by ethnic and socio-economic status? what types of policies and planning initiatives have been implemented in order to prevent the social downgrading of housing estates? the collection of chapters in this book addresses these questions from a new perspective previously unexplored in scholarly literature. the social aspects of housing estates are thoroughly investigated (including socio-demographic and economic characteristics of current and past inhabitants; ethnicity and segregation patterns; population dynamics; etc.), and the physical composition of housing estates is described in significant detail (including building materials; building form; architectural and landscape design; built environment characteristics; etc.). this book is timely because the recent global economic crisis and europe’s immigration crisis demand a thorough investigation of the role large housing estates play in poverty and ethnic concentration. through case studies of housing estates in 14 european centers, the book also identifies policy measures that have been used to address challenges in housing estates throughout europe.

Residential Segregation in Comparative Perspective Making Sense of Contextual Diversity

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Author by : Kuniko Fujita
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 346
Isbn : 1317065344
Identifier : 9781317065340
Release : 2016-04-08
Publisher by : Routledge
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 5535642
Total Read : 1413356
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Description : Read Now Residential Segregation In Comparative Perspective by Kuniko Fujita and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. we know very little about variations in urban class and ethnic segregation among nations and even less about differences among cities in different regions of the world. spatial organization (places and neighbourhoods) matters significantly in some cities in reproducing class relations and ethno-racial hierarchies, but may be much less important in others. the degree and the impact of segregation depend upon contextual diversity. by emphasizing the importance of contextual diversity in the study of urban residential segregation, the book questions currently popular urban theories such as global city, neoliberal urbanism, and gentrification. these theories tend to dissociate cities from their national and regional context and thus ignore their history, culture, politics and institutions. the aim of this book is to introduce the significantly different urban experiences in social and spatial segregation patterns and rationales which exist among the world's regions and to demonstrate that urban theory needs to draw systematically upon this wide range of experiences. the cities selected (athens, beijing, budapest, copenhagen, hong kong, madrid, paris, são paulo, taipei, and tokyo) were chosen in order to achieve geographical spread, to maximise the diversity of types of socioeconomic regulation.this volume is thus able to avoid the interpretative limitations and misconstructions resulting from universalizing the anglo-american experience.

Racial Cities Governance and the Segregation of Romani People in Urban Europe

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Author by : Giovanni Picker
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 174
Isbn : 131761223X
Identifier : 9781317612230
Release : 2017-02-24
Publisher by : Taylor & Francis
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 4183930
Total Read : 1044179
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Description : Read Now Racial Cities by Giovanni Picker and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. going beyond race-blind approaches to spatial segregation in europe, racial cities argues that race is the logic through which stigmatized and segregated "gypsy urban areas" have emerged and persisted after world war ii. building on nearly a decade of ethnographic and historical research in romania, italy, france and the uk, giovanni picker casts a series of case studies into the historical framework of circulations and borrowings between colony and metropole since the late nineteenth century. by focusing on socio-economic transformations and social dynamics in contemporary cluj-napoca, pescara, montreuil, florence and salford, picker detects four local segregating mechanisms, and comparatively investigates resemblances between each of them and segregation in french rabat, italian addis ababa, and british new delhi. these multiple global associations across space and time serve as an empirical basis for establishing a solid bridge between race critical theories and urban studies. racial cities is the first comprehensive analysis of the segregation of romani people in europe, providing a fine-tuned and in-depth explanation of this phenomenon. while inequalities increase globally and poverty is ever more concentrated, this book is a key contribution to debates and actions addressing social marginality, inequalities, racist exclusions, and governance. thanks to its dense yet thoroughly accessible narration, the book will appeal to scholars, undergraduate and postgraduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and equally to activists and policy makers, who are interested in areas including: race and racism, urban studies, governance, inequalities, colonialism and postcolonialism, and european studies.

Social-spatial Segregation Concepts, Processes and Outcomes

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Author by : Lloyd, Christopher D., Shuttleworth, Ian G., David W. Wong
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 320
Isbn : 144730134X
Identifier : 9781447301349
Release : 2015-08-19
Publisher by : Policy Press
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 4762684
Total Read : 5048195
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Description : Read Now Social Spatial Segregation by Lloyd, Christopher D., Shuttleworth, Ian G., David W. Wong and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this edited volume, bringing together leading researchers from the united states, the united kingdom and europe, offers a new approach to conceptualising segregation.

Urban Inequality Evidence From Four Cities

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Author by : Alice O'Connor, Chris Tilly, Lawrence Bobo
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 564
Isbn : 1610444310
Identifier : 9781610444316
Release : 2001-03-08
Publisher by : Russell Sage Foundation
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 3724009
Total Read : 1231910
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Description : Read Now Urban Inequality by Alice O'Connor, Chris Tilly, Lawrence Bobo and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. despite today's booming economy, secure work and upward mobility remain out of reach for many central-city residents. urban inequality presents an authoritative new look at the racial and economic divisions that continue to beset our nation's cities. drawing upon a landmark survey of employers and households in four u.s. metropolises, atlanta, boston, detroit, and los angeles, the study links both sides of the labor market, inquiring into the job requirements and hiring procedures of employers, as well as the skills, housing situation, and job search strategies of workers. using this wealth of evidence, the authors discuss the merits of rival explanations of urban inequality. do racial minorities lack the skills and education demanded by employers in today's global economy? have the jobs best matched to the skills of inner-city workers moved to outlying suburbs? or is inequality the result of racial discrimination in hiring, pay, and housing? each of these explanations may provide part of the story, and the authors shed new light on the links between labor market disadvantage, residential segregation, and exclusionary racial attitudes. in each of the four cities, old industries have declined and new commercial centers have sprung up outside the traditional city limits, while new immigrant groups have entered all levels of the labor market. despite these transformations, longstanding hostilities and lines of segregation between racial and ethnic communities are still apparent in each city. this book reveals how the disadvantaged position of many minority workers is compounded by racial antipathies and stereotypes that count against them in their search for housing and jobs. until now, there has been little agreement on the sources of urban disadvantage and no convincing way of adjudicating between rival theories. urban inequality aims to advance our understanding of the causes of urban inequality as a first step toward ensuring that the nation's cities can prosper in the future without leaving their minority residents further behind. a volume in the multi-city study of urban inequality

Multi-Ethnic Metropolis: Patterns and Policies

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Author by : S. Musterd, W. Ostendorf, M. Breebaart
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 209
Isbn : 9780792348542
Identifier : 0792348540
Release : 1998-01-31
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 4807758
Total Read : 8847444
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Description : Read Now Multi Ethnic Metropolis Patterns And Policies by S. Musterd, W. Ostendorf, M. Breebaart and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. multi-ethnic metropolis is based on international comparative research on ethnic segre gation patterns and policy reactions at local and national level. the objective was to achieve a broader, european perspective. for the acquisition of the information on which this book is based, we relied heavily on our colleagues abroad and their network of relations, since a great deal of factual data and information on the policies pursued is usually not available in a freely accessible form and can only be obtained through persons who know their way around. eventually, in formation was provided by about seventy people (data administrators, policymakers at local and state level, politicians, academic researchers, representatives of interest groups, etc. ). the names of all people that contributed to this study are mentioned in the list of persons who were interviewed. without wishing to wrong all these people, we especially want to thank the key informants who acted as intermediaries for following contacts. in alphabetical order, these are the following persons: dr. lars-erik borgegard (stockholm}, prof. chris hamnett (london), dr. herve vieil lard baron (paris}, prof. dr. chris kesteloot (brussels}, prof. dr. bob murdie (toronto}, prof. ceri peach (london), prof. phil rees (london and manchester}, prof brian rob son (manchester) and prof. gunther glebe (dusseldorf and frankfurt). furthermore we owe thanks to prof. herman van der wusten, who took care of the in terviews in 'paris', which was an unruly case.

Immigration, Poverty, and Socioeconomic Inequality

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Author by : David Card, Steven Raphael
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 484
Isbn : 1610448049
Identifier : 9781610448048
Release : 2013-07-31
Publisher by : Russell Sage Foundation
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 5248253
Total Read : 9481810
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Description : Read Now Immigration Poverty And Socioeconomic Inequality by David Card, Steven Raphael and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. the rapid rise in the proportion of foreign-born residents in the united states since the mid-1960s is one of the most important demographic events of the past fifty years. the increase in immigration, especially among the less-skilled and less-educated, has prompted fears that the newcomers may have depressed the wages and employment of the native-born, burdened state and local budgets, and slowed the u.s. economy as a whole. would the poverty rate be lower in the absence of immigration? how does the undocumented status of an increasing segment of the foreign-born population impact wages in the united states? in immigration, poverty, and socioeconomic inequality, noted labor economists david card and steven raphael and an interdisciplinary team of scholars provide a comprehensive assessment of the costs and benefits of the latest era of immigration to the united states immigration, poverty, and socioeconomic inequality rigorously explores shifts in population trends, labor market competition, and socioeconomic segregation to investigate how the recent rise in immigration affects economic disadvantage in the united states. giovanni peri analyzes the changing skill composition of immigrants to the united states over the past two decades to assess their impact on the labor market outcomes of native-born workers. despite concerns over labor market competition, he shows that the overall effect has been benign for most native groups. moreover, immigration appears to have had negligible impacts on native poverty rates. ethan lewis examines whether differences in english proficiency explain this lack of competition between immigrant and native-born workers. he finds that parallel spanish-speaking labor markets emerge in areas where spanish speakers are sufficiently numerous, thereby limiting the impact of immigration on the wages of native-born residents. while the increase in the number of immigrants may not necessarily hurt the job prospects of native-born workers, low-skilled migration appears to suppress the wages of immigrants themselves. michael stoll shows that linguistic isolation and residential crowding in specific metropolitan areas has contributed to high poverty rates among immigrants. have these economic disadvantages among low-skilled immigrants increased their dependence on the u.s. social safety net? marianne bitler and hilary hoynes analyze the consequences of welfare reform, which limited eligibility for major cash assistance programs. their analysis documents sizable declines in program participation for foreign-born families since the 1990s and suggests that the safety net has become less effective in lowering child poverty among immigrant households. as the debate over immigration reform reemerges on the national agenda, immigration, poverty, and socioeconomic inequality provides a timely and authoritative review of the immigrant experience in the united states. with its wealth of data and intriguing hypotheses, the volume is an essential addition to the field of immigration studies. a volume in the national poverty center series on poverty and public policy

Urban Segregation and the Welfare State Inequality and Exclusion in Western Cities

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Author by : Sako Musterd, Wim Ostendorf
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 292
Isbn : 1134698011
Identifier : 9781134698011
Release : 2013-04-15
Publisher by : Routledge
Category : Architecture
Total Download : 4541625
Total Read : 4880547
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Description : Read Now Urban Segregation And The Welfare State by Sako Musterd, Wim Ostendorf and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. urban segregation and the welfare state examines ethnic and socio-economic segregation patterns, social polarisation, and social exclusion in major cities in the western world. contributors from across north america and europe provide in-depth analysis of particular cities, ranging from johannesburg, chicago and toronto to amsterdam, stockholm and belfast. the authors highlight the social problems in and of cities, indicating differences between nation-states in terms of economic restructuring, migration, welfare state regimes and "ethnic history".

Cities in Contemporary Europe

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Author by : Arnaldo Bagnasco, Patrick Le Gal?'s
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 219
Isbn : 9780521664882
Identifier : 0521664888
Release : 2000-05-11
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Category : Political Science
Total Download : 5866874
Total Read : 5025727
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Description : Read Now Cities In Contemporary Europe by Arnaldo Bagnasco, Patrick Le Gal?'s and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. european cities are at the centre of social, political and economic changes in western europe. this book proposes a new research agenda in urban sociology and politics applying primarily to european cities, in particular those that together make up the urban structure of europe: a fabric of older cities of over 100,000 inhabitants, regional capitals and smaller state capitals. the contributors develop an analytical framework which views cities as local societies, and as collective factors and site for modes of governance. the three parts of the book examine the economics of cities, the social structures, and the modes and processes of governance. each chapter comprises a comparison across several countries and examines critically the book's central theoretical perspective. this is not a book about the making of a europe of cities but rather about how some cities can take advantage of their changing global and european environment.

Neighborhood Decline

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Author by : Ronald van Kempen, Gideon Bolt, Maarten van Ham
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 141
Isbn : 9781138744707
Identifier : 1138744700
Release : 2017-05-27
Publisher by : Routledge
Category :
Total Download : 1352103
Total Read : 4738739
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Description : Read Now Neighborhood Decline by Ronald van Kempen, Gideon Bolt, Maarten van Ham and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. the global financial and economic crisis that hit the world since 2008 has affected the lives of many people all over the world and resulted in declining incomes, rising unemployment, foreclosures, forced residential moves, and cut-backs in government expenditure. the extent to which the crisis has affected urban neighborhoods and has led to rising intra-urban inequalities, has not yet received much attention. the implemented budget cuts and austerity programs of national and local governments are likely to have hit some neighborhoods more than others. the authors of this this book, which come from a variety of countries and disciplines, show that the economic crisis has affected poor neighborhoods more severely than more affluent ones. the tendency of the state to retreat from these neighborhoods has negative consequences for their residents and may even nullify the investments that have been made in many poor neighborhoods in the recent past. this book was originally published as a special issue of urban geography.

Cities of Europe Changing Contexts, Local Arrangement and the Challenge to Urban Cohesion

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Author by : Yuri Kazepov
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 368
Isbn : 1444399497
Identifier : 9781444399493
Release : 2011-07-15
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 1980139
Total Read : 3744135
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Description : Read Now Cities Of Europe by Yuri Kazepov and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. cities of europe is a unique combination of book and cd-rom examining the effects of recent socio-economic transformations on western european cities. a unique combination of book and cd-rom examining the effects of recent socio-economic transformations on western european cities. focuses on the interplay between segregation, social exclusion and governance issues in these cities. takes a comparative approach by highlighting the specifics of european cities vis-à-vis other urban contexts and analysing the intra-european differences. the cd-rom features a series of 2,000 photographs from seventeen cities (amsterdam, antwerp, barcelona, berlin, birmingham, brussels, bucharest, helsinki, london, milan, naples, new york, paris, rotterdam, tirana, turin, and utrecht). also features 126 thematic maps, interviews with established scholars, and literature reviews. the book and the cd-rom are linked through an extensive cross-referencing system.

Inequalities in Creative Cities Issues, Approaches, Comparisons

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Author by : Ulrike Gerhard, Michael Hoelscher, David Wilson
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 270
Isbn : 1349951153
Identifier : 9781349951154
Release : 2016-12-20
Publisher by : Springer
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 1239244
Total Read : 9055244
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Description : Read Now Inequalities In Creative Cities by Ulrike Gerhard, Michael Hoelscher, David Wilson and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. this edited volume is a lively and timely appraisal of “ordinary cities” as they struggle to implement creative redevelopment and economic growth strategies to enhance their global competitiveness. the book is concerned with new and often unanticipated inequalities that have emerged from this new city movement. as chronicled, such cities – cleveland (usa), heidelberg (germany), oxford (uk), groningen (netherlands), montpellier (france), but also cities from the global south such as cachoeira (brazil) and delhi (india) – now experience new and unexpected realities of poverty, segregation, neglect of the poor, racial and ethnic strife. to date planners, academics, and policy analysts have paid little attention to the connections between this drive in these cities to be more creative and the inequalities that have followed. this book, keenly making these connections, highlights the limited visions that have been applied in this planning drive to make these cities more creative and ultimately more globally competitive.

Neighbourhood Effects Research: New Perspectives

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Author by : Maarten van Ham, David Manley, Nick Bailey, Ludi Simpson, Duncan Maclennan
Languange Used : English, France, Spanish, Italia and chinese
Page : 300
Isbn : 9789400723092
Identifier : 9400723091
Release : 2011-11-22
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Category : Social Science
Total Download : 4407544
Total Read : 4617505
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Description : Read Now Neighbourhood Effects Research New Perspectives by Maarten van Ham, David Manley, Nick Bailey, Ludi Simpson, Duncan Maclennan and you can download with pub, pdf, txt, doc, and more file format with free account. over the last 25 years a vast body of literature has been published on neighbourhood effects: the idea that living in more deprived neighbourhoods has a negative effect on residents’ life chances over and above the effect of their individual characteristics. the volume of work not only reflects academic and policy interest in this topic, but also the fact that we are still no closer to answering the question of how important neighbourhood effects actually are. there is little doubt that these effects exist, but we do not know enough about the causal mechanisms which produce them, their relative importance in shaping individual’s life chances, the circumstances or conditions under which they are most important, or the most effective policy responses. collectively, the chapters in this book offer new perspectives on these questions, and refocus the academic debate on neighbourhood effects. the book enriches the neighbourhood effects literature with insights from a wide range of disciplines and countries.